ABSTRACTS ON SOIL and ECOLOGY
11) THE EFFECTS OF SITE FACTORS ON THE DEGREE OF INFESTATIONS BY Evetria buoliana (Schiff.) TO Pinus radiata PLANTATIONS IN TURKEY
Authors: AYIK, C., GULER, N.
Pinus radiata plantationsa were infested by an insect named Evetria buoliana in Turkey. Investigations on the source of infestation showed taht site conditions of the plantation areas do not conform to the site requirements of P. radiata. High summer temperature, low air humidity and the low ratio of cloudyness negatively influence the vigor growth of trees which is one of the main reasons of infestation by Evetria buoliana. On the other hand, low light intensity and warm temparatue (around 22oC) during evenings in the summer time creates the optimum conditions for mating, flight and dispersal of this insect. Statistical analysis have shown significant correlation (at P= 0.99 level) between the degree of infestation of the insect and site factors (such as; relief, soil depth-actual and physiologic, drainage and water holding capacity of the soil) of the plantation areas where investigation were made. Results obtained from the analysis can be summerized as below: - Infestation was least at foot slopes and most at the top of the hills and level areas. In the middle slopes infestation has occured in between of them. - A negative correlation was observed between the degree of infestation and the depth of soil (actual) and Physilogic). Increasing soil depth resulted decrease in the infestation and visa versa. - "Moderately well darinage" represnts least infestation, "well drainage" represents less infestation, "imperfect drainage", "poor darinage" and " excessive darinage" categories represent most infestation conditions. - An increase in the available water capasity of soil amount of precipitation water (mm) hel by 10 cm soil thickness in the available form-results a decrease in the degree of infestation by evetria buoliana. As a conclusion: P. radiata should be planted at local areas, where site conditions conform to the site requirements of this species in Turkey.
12) INFLUENCE OF THE VEGETATION CLEARING AND SOIL PREPARATION EQUIPMENT ON THE SOILS OF REFORESTATION AREAS
Authors: AYIK, C., YILMAZ, H.
Several treatments of site preparation were applied at two experimental areas located in two ecologicaly different regions of Turkey. Three equiment were used for clearing vegetation and five different types of soil preparation methods were applied at the trails. Thickness and weight of the topsoil removed by dozer blade and rake, during clearing were accounted. Furthermore, organic matter and nutrient content of the transported soil were determined. Amount of the Commercial fertilizers equivalent of them and their values in cash were accounted. Another conclusion of this research is soil preparation methods were not effective on soils, which are fine textured and not strictly compacted, after two years from application.
13) UTILIZATION OF CORN PLANT FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF NURSERY SOILS
Author (s): ZENGIN, M.
An important part of the forest nurseries has heavy textured soils in Turkey. Especially the rate of clay + silt ideally should not be more then 25 % in the soils for normal growth, but the rate is much more than 35 % (which is ideal for broadleaved species) in nurseries. This situation imposes the negative effects on the quality of saplings. It was tried to improve the physical condition of soil by mixing the chopped corn stalks in to the soils. Because of the unsignificant effects of chopped corn stalk mixing theatments on the growth of saplings of (P.deltoides) SAMSUN clone, the box experiment was started. The soils which were taken from the most heavier structured (silty clay) field in the nursery were mixed with sand and corn compost. According to the results of the comparison of some physical characteristics of these mixtures; it was found that bulk densty, porosity and saturation capacity of corn mixtures were better than those of the sand mixtures but on the other hand, sand mixtures had the better available water capacity than those of the corn compost mixtures.
14) EFFECTS OF EARLY YEARS FERTILIZATION ON THE GROWTH OF POPLAR PLANTATIONS
ODC: 114.521:114.54:521.1:522.3:176.1 Populus
Author : ZENGIN, M., KARAKAS, A.
Three fertilizer doses have been applied to increase the nitrogen level of the soil to 0.07%, 0.10% and 0.15 to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilizers on the growth of P.euramericana "I-214" and GAZI (TR-56/52) clones used in poplar plantations in Edirne and Beypazari-Kirbasi nurseries respectively. Three fertilizer applications were made in 5 years with one years intervals. According to the results of this research no significant effects were found on the growth of height and diameter of trees in both experiment areas.
15) COMPARISON OF HYDROLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS IN KOCAELI REGION
Author : ZENGIN, M.
This study was focused on the comparison of the mixed deciduous coppice natural stands with the exotic pine plantations as regards to disposition of rainfall and to deposition of some chemicals. Four sample plots to represent different stand types (Pinus pinaster Aiton, Pinus radiata D.Don., Pinus nigra Arnold and Castenea sativa Mill, + Fagus orientalis Lipsky + Quercus spp. mixed stands) were chosen and water samples were collected as throughfall, stemflow and surface runoff in the sample plots. Assessments were made on electrical conductivity, organic matter contents, pH values and Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb consantrations, for water samples taken from the sample plots. Similar assessments as mentioned above were made also for top soil samples from the sample plots, in order to clarify the chemical effects of throughfall and stemflow on the top soil.
16) USE OF CORN (MAIZE) PLANT COMPOST IN SEEDLING CONTAINERS FOR PINUS NIGRA PLANTATIONS IN ESKISEHIR REGION, TURKEY
ODC: 56:111.81:232.4:232.329.6:174.7 Pinus nigra
Author : ZENGIN, M., KARAKAS, A.
The conclusions of the study of "The most suitable container dimensions and material for use in forest nurseries" showed that Ayik type containers (4 cm x 4 cm x 23 cm 280 cm3) which are modified from Spencer-Lemaire (rootrainer) containers are suitable for raising black pine seedlings for planting in plantation sites in semi-arid regions, corn plant mixtures can be used in these containers as an alternative material to peat. In this study four different mixture of container material (corn plant compost,granite sand,perlite,soil and farm manure) in an Ayik type container were compared with standard mixture (soil+sand+farm manure) and also with peat mixture, 1+0 and 2+0 years old black pine seedlings were raised in Ayik type containers with above mentioned type of mixtures and the seedlings were transplanted in plantation sites in the Eskisehir province.Another plantation trial was also established for comparison with 1+0 year old seedlings grown in Enso-tray type containers with peat mixteres. Observations showed that 1+0 year old Anatolian black pine seedlings grown inAyik type containers with corn plant compost mixture are suitable to transplant in plantation sites in semi-arid areas similar to The trial site of this study.
17) PLANNING OF THE RENEWABLE NATURAL RESOURCES OF THE IZMIT-YUVACIK WATERSHED FOR WATER PRODUCTION (IN TERMS OF QUALITY, AMOUNT AND REGIME)
Author : ZENGIN, M., HIZAL, A., KARAKAS, A., SERENGIL, Y., TUGRUL, D., ERCAN, M.
The purpose of this study is to plan the renewable natural
resources of Yuvacik dam watershed in order to optimize the water production
potential. In this study, black-white and false color aerial photographs
and digital topographical maps and other study materials such as soil, water and
vegetation samples, land use were evaluated by field, laboratory and office
works. Thus, digital maps of the watershed such as geology, slope groups,
physiographic soil, actual land use types and land capability classes were
produced and the properties of the stream waters were examined to obtain data
about site conditions. Sheet erosion is a problem in the agricultural areas and
on andesite and basalt parent materials which also lie under Yuvacık dam.
It is clear that establishment of a sustainable water production and management system could only be possible by protecting the watershed, taking measures for sheet erosion, improving the degraded forest areas and changing the cutting order in the productive forests.
18) Assessment of Forest Damages Caused by AIr PollutIon (SO2) In West-Blacksea and Marmara RegIon
This study has already
done both in Marmara and Western Black Sea Region. Sample plots had established
by using Manuel of Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution and İts Effects on
Forest / under Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution conducted
by UN/ECE/ICP-Forests Hamburg.
This study will be able to a data base for future activities in Turkey. On the other hand it will be a comperable data for EU Databank, and give important clues about regional base Turkish Forest Conditions in specific regions.