ABSTRACTS ON SILVICULTURE
41) AN EXPERIMENT ON SELECTION OF THE MOST CONVENIENT SPACINGS IN THE PRODUCTION OF POPULUS NIGRA (GAZI) AND POPULUS X EURAMERICANA (I-214) SAPLINGS
ODC: 232.3:176.1 Populus
Author(s): AYBERK, Doc. Dr. S.TOLAY,Dr.U.,ULUDAG,S.
The experiment was designed and established to determine the effects of spacings on the growth of poplar saplings, of Populus euramericana "I-214" and Populus nigra "GAZI" in nursery under the Central Anatolian Conditious. To realize this objective an experiment was established at Behicbey Forest Nursey in Ankara. Different spacings were used and observed during 1991 and 1992 vegetation periods. The best growth was observed in the treatments percels of 0.60 x 1.50 m 0.60 x 1.80 m and 0.50 x 1.80 m for Black poplars (Gazi) and 0.80 x 1.50 m, 0.80 x 1.80 m and 0.70 x 1.50 m for Hybrid popolars (I-214).
42) INVESTIGATONS ON AGROFORESTRY TECHNIQUES IN PRIVATE POPLAR NURSERIES
ODC: 232.3:176.1 Populus
Author(s): AYBERK, Doc. Dr. S., ANGELI, Dr.A., COLAK, I.
The experiment was designed to investigate the effects of intercropping on the growth of poplar nursery material. (Populus nigra "56/52") in Sorgun, Yozgat in Central Anatolia. First year red beans and melones were grown between the poplar rows. Growth of poplar saplings and crop production were observed during two years. At the end of second vegetation period, collected data was analised. According to the results of analysis.The height and diameter growth showed best result of analysis. The height and diameter growth showed best results in control plots. The control plots have been followed by the plots of red beans and melones. 95 kg/da rose beans and 1.110 kg/da melones were harvested in first year but no mechantable crop was harvested in second year.
43) THE DETERMINATION OF THE UNIT-TIMES OF SOME MECHANIZATION TECHNIQUES BASED ON NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE CO- PROJECT OF POPLAR DEVELOPMENT IN TURKEY (TKGP)
ODC: : 232.2:232.427:176.1 Populus
Author(s): ZORALIOGLU, Dr.T., KOCAR, S.
In this study, unit times of the standart operations were investigated in the poplar nurseries and plantations in which the new mechanical technology was applied compared with the traditional methods. Eleven treatments in poplar nursery and nine treatments in poplar plantation were observed. According to the research results mechanization methods based on the new technologies gave a positive and promising results in poplar nurseries and plantations.
44) RESEARCH ON THE TECHNIQUES OF ROOTLESS POPLAR SAPLING PRODUCTION FROM STOOL-BEDS
ODC: 232.328.3;232.411.4;220.127.116.11 Populus
Author(s): SARIBAS, M.
Poplar plantation is generally established by using two year-old plants with having roots. On the other hand, the poplar plantation can also be established with rootles and two-year-old plants. In this research, the rootless plants (cuttings) production from four different poplar clones (I-214; 45/51; 77/51; 5/4) as used for mother plants and the plantation successes of these rootless plants were examined, for the production of rootless plants, the satisfactory cutting height of mother plant from the soil surface is about 10 cm. The mother plant can be cut for the rootless plant production 2 or 3 times with every two years. For the production of sufficient quality of rootless plants, the ideal number of branches left on the mother plant is two at each cutting.There was found to be quality differences between clones and the best quality plant was got from the clone 77/51, and the second, third and fourth quality clones were from 45/51, 5/4 and I-214 respectively. When the soil is dug at least one meter and the soil has a high moisture during the rootless plant plantation, the plantation success is increasing.The plantation of two-year-old rootless poplar plants is more economical than that of poplar plants having roots.
45) ESTABLISMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF CUTTINGS-ORCHARDS IN HYBRID POPLAR NURSERIES
ODC: 232.3:176.1 Populus
Author(s): ZORALIOGLU, Dr. T.
The objective of the project Investigations on determination of techniques related to establishment and management of material plots in the nursery of poplar (clones of I-214 and 45/51 hybris), is to investigate more practical and economic method of propagation of stem cuttings. By cutting the two year old saplings at the height of 0.60 m some fresh sprouts are obtained and these new sprouts are selected. The best results was observed in the plots were left on the stems.
46) INVESTIGATIONS ON THE COMPARISONS OF THE METHODS OF DEGRADED COPPICE AND POSSIBILITIES OF THE USE OF MACHINERY
Year / No: 1994/3-168
Autors: AYBERK, Doc.Dr. S.
In Turkey, large investment programs have been carried out by the General Directorate of Forests to rehabilitate degraded oak coppice under the energy forests programs. The experiment was designed to see the effects of mechanization and conventional techniques on the growth of oak coppices (Querces cerris, Q. Petraea, Q. Frainetto, Q.infectoria, qq. Pubescens) after clearcutting with the blade and the rake blade of crawler tractor and the comparison between the results obtained from the plots clearcut by chain saw and ax. The better growth has been observed in the experiment plots where stems were clearcut by rake blade pushed by crawler tractor.
47) INVESTIGATION ON AGROFORESTRY TECHINIQUES IN HYBRID AND BLACK POPLAR PLANTATIONS
Author(s): AYBERK,S., ANGELI, A., COLAK,I.
This experiment was designed and established in Yozgat which is one of the areas for pilot plantations of Poplar Devolepment Project in Turkey to see the effects of intercropping on poplar growth and to determine the yield of agricultural crops.Beans, red beans and maize were cultivated. In the experiment two poplar clones were planted Populus x euramericana "I-214" and Poulus nigra "Gazi".It was recorded that no significant effects of the treatments on the growth of poplar and the annual yield of agricultural crops decreased by age.After the third year the intercropping is not economic and attractive for the landowners.
48) INVESTIGATIONS ON THE PRUNING TECHNIQUES IN PINUS PINASTER AITON PLANTATIONS
This experiment was designed and established in theKerpe Research Forest near Kocaeli. The objective of the experiment to determine the effects of different pruning intensities and different pruning times on the stand development and the quality. . According to the results of measurements and assesments it was seen that no significant results obtained among the treatments plots in height growth parameter. On the other hand significant differences were obtained among the plots where pruning was carried out one year after the pruning treatment the diameter growth was negatively influenced and diameter growth losses were observed. The diameter losses were observed in first two pruning treatments in 1986 and 1989. In 1992 no significant results obtained according to the results of diameter and height growth measurements. As a final result of the trial it is clearly seen that there is no reason to consider on the relationship between pruning and growth. Pruning is effective on stem straightness and wood quality. If the objective of stand establishment is to produce quality wood, gradual pruning designed to height growth is advised. If the objective is only quantity in wood production, low pruning is sufficient.
49) THE RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE THINNING AND PRUNING TRIALS ESTABLISHED WITH P.RADIATA D.DON
Author (s): AYBERK,S., TOLAY, U., ZORALIOGLU, T.
An experiment was designed and established in Kerpe Research Forest at P. radiata D. Don plots to see effects of time and density on the height and diameter growth. The experiment was established in 1973 observed until 1997. Experimental design is complete block design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. Spacings, 3.0 x 2.0 m seedlings, 1.0 P. radiata D. Don. The thinning has showed positive effects on the growth. According to the analysis of variance in the plots of 2 nd treatment the plants showed the best height and diameter growth. All treatments were fullfilled and neressary recordings were kept according the project document. According to the obtained results the best combination of thinning and pruning operations is summarised below. The stand established in 2x3 m spacings shoold be thinned 50 % systematic and pruned up to 2.5 m level at the age of 6 or 5-6 m dominant height. When the dominant height is 8.5-9.0 m an additional thinning of 20 % selective will be sufficient and about 640 stems will be left for final cut.
50) THE RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE EXPERIMENTS ON THE PLANTING SPACINGS IN THE PLANTATIONS OF PINUS PINASTER AITON AND PINUS RADIATA D. DON
Author (s): AYBERK,S., TOLAY, U., ZORALIOGLU, T.
The trial was established in the pilot plantation site which is located by the Blacksea shore in the northern part of Cochlea. Two different experimental designs were appreciated. One of then was semi-circular which covered 15 different spacing. Second design was prepared in rectangular shape and covered 5 different spacing selected from first design's 15 spacing designs were 3 times replicated for P. radiate and P. pilaster separately. 1.0 old seedlings were planted in the intensively cultivated land. The results obtained; Nelder design - semicircular, P. radiata trial significant differences; in height growth at the end of 5th year in diameter growth at the end of 6th year in narrower spacings the high height growth and low diameter growth values were obtained. Nelder design, P. pinaster trial, significant differences; in height growth at the end of 6th year in diameter growth at the of 7th year in the plots of narrow spacings height, in the plots widely established diameter growth showed better values. The best method is reasonable spacing and one thinning of merchantable material witting the rotation period.