ABSTRACTS ON SILVICULTURE

31) PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE INFLUENCE OF INITIAL SPACING ON GROWTH OF PINUS RADIATA D. DON

Year/ Number: 1983/19                             ODC: 232.43:174.7 Pinus
Author(s): AYBERK, S

To investigate the influence of 4 initial spacings (3 m x 3 m, 1.5 m x 3 m, 2 m x 2 m, 2.5 m x 2.5 m) on the growth of P. radiata D. Don. An experiment was established at Isiktepe in Izmir, with randomised block design and 4 replications. The best diameter growth was obtained in the plots of 3 m x 3 m and 2.5 m x 2.5 m.


32) AN INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECTS OF SURFACE APPLICATION OF N.P.K. ON THE GROWTH OF P. RADIATA D. DON AND P. PINASTER AITON AT KERPE

Year/ Number: 1984/2                             ODC: : 232.425.1:174.7 Pinus
Author(s): AYBERK, S., TOLAY, U.

A central composite rotable second order design with four x- variables has been used. The four x - variables are represented by N.P.K. and the trace element boron. This design requires a total of 31 treatment combinations. The treatment combinations are taken from Cohran and Cox (1957). The use of incomplete block design was considered but it was not thought that the increase in efficiency would be enough to outweigh the increase in combination that would be involved. The experiment was replicated four times in replicated blocks. Each treatment plot consists of 6 x 5 rows of trees which allows plots between each brushpile with a blank row dividing them. The seedlings (1.0) were planted in March 1975. All dead and missing plants were replaced in December 1975. Ammonium nitrate (26 % N),superphosphate (17 % P2O2 . 7.4 % P) and commercial grade fertilizers were applied. The phosphate and potassium were applied in two slits, one on either side of each plant. The slits, which are 20 cm away from the base pf plant and 15 cm deep, were made by planting bar. Half the total quantity of P and K was placed into each of the two slits and then covered. The ammonium nitrate was spreaded in surface bands on two sides of each plant and then mixed with the topsoil by cultivation. Boron was applied after the other fertilizers, in an circular band around the plant, and dug well into the soil. As a conclusion, we understand that in the areas where the ecological conditions are favourable for plant growth, there is no need to apply fertiliser. Kerpe has favourable climatic conditions as well as soil conditions. On the other hand. Experiment plot used to have very rich broadleaved forest remnants. The soil has very rich organic matter deposid inherited from the forest. Therefore we have no significant effects of fertiliser on the growth of P. radiata an P. pinaster.


33) WEED CONTROL IN FOREST NURSERIES

Year/ Number: 1984/20                             ODC: 232.325.2
Author(s): TOLAY, U., AYBERK, S., SARIBAS, ZORALIOGLU, T.

Mechanical control of weeds by means of man power is costly, difficult and has a great hinderding effect in the execution of nursery working program. The use of chemical compounds (i.e. herbicides) in controling unwanted vegetation has proven more effective and economic. That is to say that in nurseries, the way of controlling weeds with herbicides became very efficient. A serie of experiments was conducted as a preliminary investigation on weed control in the nurseries of Cobancesme, Alemdag, Hendek and Bursa. Following results were obtained from these experiments, 1- Dacthal (Chlorthal) can be used safely in the first week of sowing at the rate of 22 kg/ha. It effectively controls 70 % of the weed growth for 4 months. 2- Dowpon at the rate of 17 kg/ha and Roundup at the rate of 5 lt/ha gave satisfactory results for controlling Aqropyron repens and other perennial weeds in the fallow areas. 3- Gramaxone can be used at the rate of 5 lt/ha as preemergence herbicide to control weeds on sowing beds and on roadside and along pathways. 4- Gesaprim can be used at the rate of 7-10 lt/ha on prepared seed beds 6 months before sowing. But it has residual effects and highly toxic to the seedlings, so it should be tested in small experiments before use. The recommended herbicides mentioned above must be mixed with 500-600 litre of water before use and pulverized by means of a pulverizer drawn by a tractor. The amount of water should be found beforehand according to the type and power of the pulverizer for a unit area and then the amount of herbicide should be calculated and pulverized.


34) INVESTIGATION ON THE OPTIMUM FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY OF WEEDNG FOR PINES AT KEFKEN PILOT PLANTATION

Year/ Number: 1985/21                             ODC: 236.1
Author(s): TOLAY, U., AYBERK, S., ZORALIOGLU, T., BUL, M.

The investigation has been designed to provide, for two contrasting standards of land preparation, information on the intensty and duration of weeding required to ensure acceptable growth rates and survival of the Intensive weeding in the early stages of establishement has often been shown to play a vital role in ensuring high survival and uniform vigorous two main exotic pine spaecies. Pinus radiata D. Don, and Pinus pinaster Aiton. It is also intended to determine the relative importance of weeding between the rows at different stages of development from planting to the end of the third year, and also to test whether or not the results are influenced by the application of fertilizer. According to the results of the investigation : Land clearing which is made by uprooting and brushpiling vegetation by means of Fleco clearing rake frontmounted on Caterpillar D8H tractor. Soil cultivation for planting which is made by means of heavy discing following the rake clearing operation are the best land clearing and soil preparation methods. Weeding in complete area by means of discing inter-row and line weeding by hand in May, in and of July and in Septerber for three years is the best and suitable method for mechanized industrial plantations. Compound NPK fertilizer (15:15:15) at the rate of 120 grammes Per plant within one month of planting followed by a booster dose of 200 grammes approximately one year later is an effective way of fertilization to increase growth in early stages.


35) INVESTIGATION ON THE PLANTING TIME OF EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS DEHN. PLANTED IN PLAIN AND MOUNTAINOUS SITES

Year/ Number: 1986/22                                     ODC: 232.44:176.1 Eucalyptus
Author(s
: : AVCIOĞLU,E.,GÜRSES,M.K.

Planting time of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. is important both for the state and private sectors,for aprofitable investment. So, this investigation was carried out to obtain information  to be recommended for both sectors.
According to the results obtained from Tarsus-Karabucak, there was no statistical significant difference between the treatments.But, December, January and February is the practical order of planting time based on the mean volume per hectare.For this purpose and from the practical point of view, this months can be recommended as planting time,especially for the plain areas with high water table.

According to the results obtained from Bahadırlı, there was statistical significant difference between volume per hectare.The planting time will be the period between December- March, but the best time is December and January.


36) NURSERY TECHNIQUES FOR BROADLEAVED FOREST TREE SPECIES IN TURKEY

Year/ Number: 1987/4-140                             ODC: 232.3:176.1
Author(s): TOLAY, U.

According to the results of this investigation and to the practical experiences obtained from the nurseries routine, following important points for the production of the seedling of broadleaved species can be given : 1- Broadleaves as a group are more difficult to grow than conifers because the broadleaves include several botanial families and many species that differ in seeding habits and nursery requirements. The first factor to consider in the production of broadleaved seedling is the soil. 2- In most of nurseries there are problems with sprinkler water coverage. Many areas are not watered enough while other areas are overwatered. This can be seen in the unequal spacing of sprinkler heads which results unhomogenous seedling growth patterns. In most of the nurseries it can be generally seen that the closer to the sprinkler the seedling are the better growth they have. 3- For the seed procurement, sound seed sources should be found and used.Immature, unviable and damaged seeds should be discarded. Seeds should be cleaned after collection (i.e.seeds of oaks should be flooded) and stored according to their characteristics. Especially the seed of oak and beech are easily affected when they are stored in hot places for short time. 4- Seeds should not be sown too dense to obtain more seedlings. Broadleaved seedling grow fast and need more growing space because of their large leaf surfaces. This point is important in raising quality seedlings. So, the optimum number of seedlings in an unit area should be accepted as a guide to raise quality seedlings (Table.9). 5- Weeding is one of the very important operations in our nurseries and it is done by means of man power for the time being.But as indicated before (paragraph 2.4.2) hand weeding is expensive and fairly uneffective method.That is why, chemical control methods (herbicides) should be employed as a weeding method in the nurseries. Hand weeding is also necessary but should be kept at minimum.


37) EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LAND PREPERATION METHODS ON THE GROWTH OF PINUS PINASTER AITON AND PINUS RADIATA D. DON PLANTATIONS ON DEGRADED HARDWOOD SITES

Year/ Number: 1988/1-141                             ODC: 232.216:174.7 Pinus
Author(s): TOLAY, U., AYBERK, S., ZORALIOGLU, T., BUL, M.

This experiment was designed to determine the effects of different methods and intensities of land clearing and soil preperation on the survival, growth rate and health of two exotic species (P.radiata D.Don and P.pinaster Aiton) Each main treatment plot was split into three sub-plots and one was left, the others were ripped 50 cm deep with single and double pass. The results obtained are outlined below; Existing wood material, which has marketable value, ought to be removed by cutting with chainsaw or axe. Debris and roots left should be uprooted with specially modified clearing rakes placed in brushpiles laying parallel to contours. Areas should be disced with a heavy offset disc after clearing the existing vegetation. In the first three years after planting weeding should be applied on the rows and inter-rows by hand and tractor. NPK fertilisation hasn't showed any significant effect on growth in Kerpe area ecological conditions while fertilisation showed promising results in poor sites.


38) RECHERCHES MORPHOLOGIQUES SUR LES PEUPLIERS INDIGENES DE LA REGION EURO-SIBERIENNE DE LA TURQUIE

Year/ Number: 1989/4-148                                            ODC: 
Author(s
) : SARIBAS,M.

Quelques conseils pratiques:
a- Populus canescens L. Doit etre etudie davantage et II faut rechercher s’il existe certaines eco-types. Celte espece doit etre protegee comme reserve genetique.
b- Les peupliers spontanes en Turquie doivent etre cultives dans les lieux marginaux, et les plus enteressant devront etre selectionnes de ces populetums; puis, les reboisements du peuplier prendront la place.
c- Ayant de la moelle pourrie tres jeun, Populus tremula L.n’a pas une valeure sylviculturelle dans les peuplements mixtes, d’apres certains auteur. Mais il faudra cherchez les eco-types qui- atteignent 30-40 cm. De diametres sans pourriture (=alteration) de la moelle.
d- Les coulons males de Populus alba L. Et de Populus canescens L. Peuvent etre plantes dans les villes. Les deux autres taxons aussi peuvent servir pour les memes occasions.
e- Le bois des taxons spontanes du peuplier doit etre utilise pour la pate a papier (=I’industrie du papier).


39) INVESTIGATIONS ON THE DETERMINATION OF SUITABLE LAND PREPARATION METHODS WITH MACHINERY IN THE PLANTATION OF ARID AND SEMI-ARID AREAS OF ESKISEHIR REGION

Year/ Number: 1990/1-149                             ODC: 232.216:174.7 Pinus
Author(s): ZORALIOGLU,  T.

The objective of the research project entitled Investigations on the determination of suitable land preparation methods with machinery in the plantation of arid and semi-arid areas of Eskisehir regions, is to determine the effects of different site preparation techniques on physical soil properties and soil humidity and growth of Pinus nigra Arn.Spp. pallasiana Lamb. Holmboe seedlings in semi and arid regions.


40) THE INFLUENCES OF INITAL SPACING AND LENGHTS OF CUTTINGS ON THE QUALITY OF SAPLINGS OF THE CLONES OF P. X EURAMERICANA "I-214" AND "45/51"

Year/ Number: 1991/1-151                             ODC: 232.3:176.1 Populus
Author(s): AYBERK, S., TOLAY, U.,ULUDAG,S.

It has been aimed that to see the influence of the stem cuttings in different lenghts (20, 25, 30, 35 cm) and rooted cuttings planted in different spacings on the growth of the saplings of I-214 and 45/51 P.x. Euramericana clones in the nurseries. At the end of first growing season the rooted cuttings and 35 cm long stem cuttings showed better figures in the plots of I-214 on the diameter and height. In the second year the differences and significant effects on the growth figures of stem cuttings and rooted cuttings disseapeared. On the other hand the influence of spacing. It was recorded in the second year and determined that the best spacing is that which gives 0.80-1.00 m2 area per plants.In the plots of 45/51 clones, at the end of first growing season the cuttings of 25 and 30 cm lenghts showed better results on the growth of saplings. In the second year 30 cm stem cuttings and rooted cuttings influenced positively the height and diameter growth.As far as the survival rates are concerned the plots of rooted cuttings showed better results.


ABSTRACTS