ABSTRACTS ON FOREST PROTECTION

41) INVESTIGATIONON THE BIOLOGY, DESTRUCTIONS, PROTECTION AND CONROL METHODS OF Phoracantha semipunctata Fabr. WHICH ATTACK Eucalyptus SPECIES IN TURKEY

Year /Number: 1981/2-17                             ODC: 145.7:19.88:176.1.Eucalyptus 
Authors: YILDIZ, N., GULER, N., GUNASTI, R.

P. semipunctata Fabr. has two generations in a year in Turkey. The first one is seen from April to August, second is seen from september to April of next year. As a result, we can find eggs, larvae, chrysalides and adults of this insect between at the end of April and at the beginning of November in a year. This insect is known as a secondary harmful pest for this reason damaged stems should be out at ground level and taken out of the plantation areas. Cutting stems should be peeled and branches should be taken out of the plantation areas. Cuttings should be applied in winter piled Eucalyptus wood should be aerated. As a result of this research two choices were found about chemical control. One of them against to young larvae. Other against to adults in flying period. Gusathion, Lindol and Folimat insecticides give us a very good result with some concentrations.


42) THE FUNGI ATTACKING PILED POPLAR WOOD IN TURKEY

Year /Number: 1984/20                             ODC: 443.3:172.1:176.1.Populus 
Authors: VURAL, M., GUMUSDERE, I., KARAL, M.

Some clones and cultivars of hybrid and indigenous poplars are very important fast growing broadleaved tree species which are grown in various climatical conditions in Turkey. A kind of discoloration is occured in heart wood of poplars after felling, due to some of the wood decay fungi and the wood is decayed and become unutilized. So the identification of these kind of fungi is important for the protection point of view. According to the results of the investigation which was carried out in macro climatical regions of Turkey, 43 wood decay fungi in different families were identified. Out of 37 of these fungi are in Hymenomycetes and belong to the Polyporaceae (19), Agaricaceae (16), Telephoraceae (1), Auriculariaceae (1) families and 3 of them are in Ascomycetes and 2 of them are in Fungi imperfecti. The list of wood decay fungi are by no means complete but, this is the first attempt for the identification of fungi which attack to the wood of poplars and this kind of work must be carried on.


43) POPLAR FUNGI IN TURKEY

Year /Number: 1984/20                             ODC: 443.3:172.1:176.1.Populus 
Authors: VURAL, M., GUMUSDERE, I., KARAL, M.

A lot of investigations on the diseases of poplars are being done continuously in the world. But we are new in this field and we have only one or two works on the identification of mycoflora of Turkey. So this investigation can be regarded as the beginning of this kind of work. This investigation was done mainly in nurseries and plantations on various clones and cultivars of hybrid and indigenous poplars in macro climatical regions of Turkey. The identification of fungi were made in our laboratory but some of them were also identified by other countries. According to the results of the investigation, 55 fungi were identified on different parts of the tree for example: 26 on the petioles of leaves and flowers, 28 on the branches and stems, and 1 on the roots of the poplar trees. The list which is included in this paper is by no means complete. Some new names will be added to the list after the introduction of new clones and cultivars.


44) INVESTIGATION ON THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE FUNGI ATTACK TO THE SOME PROVENANCE OF FAST GROWING EXOTIC CONIFEROUS FOREST TREES IN NURSERIES AND PLANTATIONS IN TURKEY

Year /Number: 1984/20                             ODC:443.3:172.1:174.7.Pinus 
Authors: VURAL, M., GUMUSDERE, I., KARAL, M.

There are some old small, but valuable plantation areas scattered all around the Maramara, Black Sea, Aegean and Mediterranean regions established with some of the fast growing exotic coniferous tree species. This kind of work systematically continued according to the site conditions and requirements of the tree species used in Marmara, BLack Sea, Aegean and Mediterrenaen regions, both in horizontally and vertically after 1970. About fourty different species and provenances were used in the olantations and experimental areas. Before starting of this investigation, a literature review was done quite intensively and a lot of information were gathered from the countries where these species cultivated in. At the end of this investigation: Melampsora pinitorqua Rostr. was found on P. pinaster, P. elderica, P. halepensis. P. brutia; Coleosporium inulae Rabh. was found on P. pinaster, P. brutia;Coleosporium campanulae (Pers.) Lew. was also found on P. nigra, Chrysomya sp. was found on Pseudotsuga menziessi and Abeies bornmülleriana. Beside these, Cronartium flaccidum (Alb. et Schw.) Wint was found on P. nigra and it was quite serious. Lophodermium pinastri (Schrad. ex Hook) was found on P. brutia, but only in some areas. During this investigation, harmful effects of some abiotic factors were also seen in study areas. For example, snow fall was a serious problem on the Landes provenance of Corsican provenance was prone to snow fall, it was highly resistant.


45) AN INVENTORY OF FUNGI ATTACKING EUCALYPTUS WOOD OF PILE AND STANDING TREES

Year /Number: 1984/20                             ODC: 443.3:172.1:176.1.Eucalyptus 
Authors: VURAL, M., GUMUSDERE, I., KARAL, M.

Eucalyptus is a high yielding fast growing broadleaved tree species cultivated in an extensive area, especially in the use of marginal land in Mediterranean, Aegaean regions and in Western part of the Southeastern Anatolia. It is an important species for the industry. This study was conducted in the nurseries, species and provenance trials and in industrial and demonstrative plantations. Fungi which were found on standing and stocked trees were collected and identified. At the end of this study species of 9 fungi which attack to the leaves and 10 fungi which attack to the branches and stems were identified in different climatical regions. Apart from these species of 10 fungi were also found on stocked wood. So that, 29 fungi spp. belong to the different genera were found and identified in Turkey on cultivated eucalyptus trees.


46) AN EXPERIMENT ON CHEMICAL CONTROL OF DAMPING-OFF IN LULEBURGAZ AND KESAN NURSERIES

Year /Number: 1984/20                             ODC: 443.2:172.1:232.237.Fidanlýk 
Author : GUMUSDERE, I., ERCAN, M.

Damping-off is a very important disease which causes losses in coniferous nurseries in Turkey. The disease is caused by a number of fungi that live soprophytically in the upper layers of the soil, under favourable conditions. These fungi may become virulently pathogenic and cause early decay and death of seedlings whose stems are still soft and death of seedlings whose stems are still soft and succulent. During recent years, damping-off losses have occured very limited degrees in coniferous nurseries in Turkey. The sterilization of seeds by the mixture of Pomarsol Forte, Heptachlor or Dursban 25, Aluminium dust and Latex, against birds damages in the seedbeds, has probably prevented the damping-off. Because tehere were no chemical treatments in the coniferous nurseries before the sterilization of seeds against birds damages began. Experiments for the chemical control of damping-off in coniferous seedlings were carried out in Lüleburgaz and Kesan Forest Nurseries. In both nurseries, soil pH values are alkiline (Lüleburgaz-pH 7.7- 7.9, Ketan-pH 8.0 - 8.3). As coniferous species P. nigra seedlings in Lüleburgaz, and P. brutia in Kesan Nursery are raised.


47) THE INVESTIGATION ON A RUST FUNGUS WHICH ATTACKED TO THE Pinus nigra Arn. PLANTATION AREAS AT THE MADRA FOREST RANGE IN THE FOREST DISTRICT OF BALIKESIR

Year /Number : 1985/21                             ODC:443.3:172.1:174.7.Pinus 
Authors: VURAL, M., GUMUSDERE, I., KARAL, M.

This investigation was initially carried out to identify a rust fungus which attacked to Black pines (Pinus nigra Arn.) planted in Madra plantation area. This plantation is located in tthe Forest District of Balikesir, Korucu Forest Range and established in the years of 1958-1977, with the provenance of Pinus nigra Arn. Dursunbey. This disease was first occured and seen in Cavdarlik and Kazikbatmaz plantations and then spread over the 900-1000 ha out of 1245 ha of plantation areas. In the course of time, black pine trees were degenerated or dried out and killed. This rust was then identified as Cronartium flaccidum (Alb. Schw. Wint.) form Teleuto and Peridermium cornui Kleb. form ecidi was completed its Spermogonium and Aecidium forms on Pinus nigra Arn. and Uredo and Teleuto forms on Paeonia peregrina Mill. (which was the host plant). The identification studies were conducted in-vivio and in-vitro conditions. This disease was found in the Forest District of Bandirma, Erdek-Kirazlimanastir and Kantarlitas plantation areas on Pinus brutia Ten. as Spermagonium and Aecidium forms and on Paeonia sp., as Uredo and Teleuto forms. Apart from these two main plantation areas, it was also seen in Gallipoli-Korudag, Pinus brutia Ten. and in Unye-Boztepe, Pinus radiata D. Don plantation areas on the branches of trees and identified as Peridermium sp. But detailed investigation should also be carried ot for the biological life cycle and identification of the rust in these regions.


48) THE INVESTIGATION ON A RUST FUNGUS WHICH ATTACKS TO THE AFFORESTATION AREAS AT ISIKTEPE AND CENEDAG IN MARMARA REGION

Year /Number: 1985/22                             ODC:443.3:172.1:174.7.Pinus 
Authors: VURAL, M., GUMUSDERE, I., KARAL, M.

With this project, rust fungus was appeared on the P. brutia Ten. and P. maritima Poir. in the Isiktepe and Cenedag fast growing plantations areas in Marmara region and identified as Coleosporium inulae Rabh. in Teleuto stages and Peridermium klebahnii. E. Fisch. in Aecidium stages. Besides it was observed which P. brutia Ten. is very susceptible against to this fungus. Fungus is known with Aecia which take place on the two or more years old needles under the crowns of the pine trees. According to research records, if young trees have serious fungi damages, they can die absolutly but fungi don't serious damage to the old trees, only the damage d needles break and fall a a result of needles necrosis and the old trees area more resistant ro fungi damages. In our country it was prowed which Peridermium Sp. often attacked to P. brutia Ten., P. elderica Medved., P. silvestris L., P. nigra L., P. halepensis Mill. and P. maritima poir. plantation areas. This rust fungus caused serious damages time by time in Black Sea, Thracia-Marmara, Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea regions. These investigations area very important because on one hand these rust fungi can be identified and their biological cycle can be investigated, on the other hand mycological flora of forestry can be carried out in Turkey.


49) AN INVESTIGATION ON THE INTERIOR ROT AND FUNGAL AGENT ON ASPEN STEMS (Populus tremula L.)

Year /Number: 1993/2                             ODC: 443.3:172.1:176.1.Populus 
Authors: ULUER, K., OZAY, F.S.

In this study, aspen (Populus tremula L.) growing in the regions of Marmara and Western Black Sea, were investigated from the inteior rot and its fungal agent standpoint. In these regions, Phellinus tremulae (Bond) Bond.& Borisov on the aspen stems, was observed as a fungal agent which causes the white rots in the heartwood. The rotting starts around the age of 60 after which the proportion of decayed wood inclines to decrease.


50) THE HARMFULL AGENTIES ON POPLAR CLONES PLANTED IN MIDDLE AND SHOUTH-EAST ANOTOLIA 

Year /Number: 1994/1-166                                         ODC: 145.7:443.3:176.1.Populus
Authors:
GULER, N., CAN, P.

 Le but de l”investigation est de determiner les parasites sur les peupliers de divers clones, dans les pepinieres et les peupleraies instalees pour les essais du projet de “Developpement du Popoluculture en Turquie”, en Anatolie centrale et Anatolie Sud - Est.
Dans les conditions ecologiques de ces regions, plus on s”eloigne de la techniques de ces regions, plus on s”eloigne de la technifue convenable, plus les parasites, en particulier Melanaphila picta Pall., Sciapteron tabaniformis Rott. et Cytospora chrysospperma (Pers.) Fr. peuvent constituer une menace tres serieuse pour les peupliers.Cest pour cela fue, avant tout, il est necessaire de prendre en consideration l”importance du choiO judicieux d”un clone pour un terrain determine.

ABSTRACTS