ABSTRACTS ON FOREST PROTECTION

21) THE INVESTIGATION ON THE CHEMICAL CONTROL AGAINST THE DISEASE LEAF SPOT CAUSED BY Marssonina brunnea (Ell. Et. Ev.) P. Magn. WHICH INFEST THE LEAVES OF P. x. euramericana (Dode) Guiner Cv. I-214 IN THE NURSERY UNDER THE CLIMATIC REGION OF MARMARA

Year /Number:1969/4                             ODC:414:172.1.Mars.brun.:176.1.Populus 
Authors: VURAL, M.

Marssonina brunnea (Ell. et.ev.) P.Magn. is a parasite which infests the hybrid poplars in nurseries and reforestation areas. This fungus is videly spread and observed very much in Turkey, it was seen during last years on hybrid poplars in the region of Trachia, Marmara, Black Sea, Aegean and Meiterranean. Various clones of hybrid poplars have been attacked by this fungus in the poplar nursery Izmit and it prefers the clone of P.x euramericana "I-214" to infest occures earlier wit respect to climatic conditions of the environs that calls particular attention. Experiments of chemical control against the disease of leaf spot caused by Marssonina brunnea (Ell. et Ev.) Magn. have been carried out in the poplar nursery of Izmit on one year old poplar saplings of P.x euramericana "I-214". The evolution of disease and the density of infestation have been also examined in the meantime. The experiment have been arranged according to design of randomized blocks and three od different fungicides (Dithan M-22, Zineb, fungicides cupreous) have been applied. The amount of the "Acervulus" per centimeter square is estimated using a cartoon having five of cut aut windows to count so that each of them sized in one centimeter square. According to results of analysis of variance the fungicides gave significant differences at the leve of P=0.01. The comparison of the means according to test of Duncan showed that the best results is achieved by Dithan M-22 (Maneb) but the Zineb and Copper Oxychloride have given statistically same result.


22) THE INSECTS ATTACKING FAST GROWING EXOTIC SPECIES IN TURKEY

Year /Number: 1970-1971/5-6                             ODC: 145.7:174.7.Pinus 
Authors: SEKENDIZ, O., YILDIZ, N.

This project was based on two insects which attack fo fast growing exotic species in Turkey. On eof them is Diprion pini L. and the other is Neodiprion sertifer Geoffroyy. They are appeared P. nigra plantation areas particularly in P. radiata and P. maritima plantations but their important damages are not observed by us. Generally they are important for young plantations for this reason. This project became very useful for description of the biological cycle.


23) THE INVESTIGATION ON PREVENTIVE CONTROL AGAINST TO M. picta Pall. ATTACKING IN YOUNG POPLAR PLANTATIONS

Year /Number: 1970-1971/5-6                             ODC: 145.7:19.66:176.1.Populus 
Authors: SEKENDIZ, O., YILDIZ, N., AKKAN, A.

The attack of Melanophila picta Pall. to young poplar plantations is still an important occurence. It causes serious damage, particularly in Western and Southeast Anatolia, where the vegetation period is warm and dry. It is found in the preventive control experiments that effective duration of systemic insecticides are very short, and this is an objection. In general, more than two applications of systemic insecticides are required in one vegetation period. The different dosages of each insecticides Lindon, Endrin and Parathion were applied, resulting 9 treatments. The three different dosages of this insecticides were applied two times at a one month interval. The estimation of the results was based on the ferquency of attack on stems. The most satisfactory result was obtained by the solution of Endrin 20 ml. at 0.2 %.


24) INVESTIGATION ON THE CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Melampsora pinitorqua Postr. ATTACKING Pinus maritima Mill. YOUNG PLANTATIONS

Year /Number: 1970-1971/5-6                             ODC: 443.3:172:1.Melampsora:414:174.7.Pinus 
Authors: VURAL, M., TUNCTANER, K.

In Turkey, during recent years Melampsora pinitorqua Rostr. has damaged young plantations of P. maritima, P. brutia, P. elderica, P.halepensis, P. silvestris, P. nigra and rarely P. radiata growing in the areas where aspen being raised in the regions of Thrace, Marmara, Aegean and the Black Sea. This parasite is placed in the family Melampsoraceae of Basidiomycetes, and damages the shoots of pinus causing deformation particularly in young stages at 2-5 years old. It also damages aspen causing deficiency in assimilation. The life cycle of this heteroecious and mcrocyclic fungus progresses through I. spone stage on Pine Spp. as primary host and II. and III. spore stages on P. tremula as alternate host. In the region of Marmara where this experiment was carried out, Melampsora pinitorqua Rostr. appears from the end of April to beginning of May in P. maritima plantations established in the areas where aspen is also being raised, and its damage occurs until July. This experiment for chemical control of this fungus was applied to saplings of P. maritima Mill. at 3 years old planted in the plantation area of ISiktepe-Divisional Forest Izmit. The experiment was of randomized Block design having four replications and 6 treatments. The chemical teratments were related to the biology of the fungus and so the five fungicides (Sulphur, Dithane M-45, Zirthane, Melprex and Copper) examined were applied three times at 20 days interval. 20 days after the last treatment, the aecidis damage on the sample plants were counted and the average numbers of the damages for each plot are based analysis of variance. The analysis showed that the treatments are significantly effective at a level of P=0.99. The results of fungicides are compared by Duncan test. As the results of the analysis shows, all fungicides were significantly effective, but the Zirthane gave best result.


25) THE BIOLOGY OF Melanophila picta Pall. IN TURKEY AND THE METHODS OF CONTROL AND THE PROTECTION AGAINST IT

Year /Number: 1972/7                             ODC: 145.7:19.66:176.1.Populus 
Authors: SEKENDIZ, O., YILDIZ, N.

Melanophila picta Pall. has widely distributed in Turkey. Only it isn't seen in the East of Black Sea district where the vegetation period has too much precipitation. Particularly it causes serious damages in South and South-East Anatolia where the vegetation period is warm and dry. It has one year biological cycle. However some times it has two years biological cycle if it has unsuitable conditions. That time, adults of insects are smaller than their normal size. Melanophila picta Pall. is known as a secondary pest therefore modern cultural technique methods are necessary in establishing new poplar plantation free from attack. With parathion insecticides are applied at the protection, systemic insecticides are applied at the chemical control. We could not identified some parasites of them they can effect on population. The plantations of the first years plants are more resistant than the plantations of the second years plants. The insect causes harm technical and physiological-technical on poplar trees. Young poplar trees are weaked by them. Consequently they are broken. They cause technical harm on old poplar trees.


26) INVESTIGATION ON THE DISTRIBITION PARASITES BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AND OTHER PROTECTION METHODS OF Sciapteron tabaniformis Rott.

Year /Number: 1972/7                             ODC: 145.7:22.44:176.1.Populus 
Authors: SEKENDIZ, O., YILDIZ, N.

The project includes study of biological distribution and parasites of Paranthrene tabaniformis in Turkey, besides other investigation on the control and protection. The life cycle is completed in one year, egg laying occurs during June-August. Sex ratio male female 0/0 is 1/1 in plantations and 4/7 in nurseries. Parasites founded attacking P.t. are Apantales parasitellae, Diadegma gigentes and Bracon Sp. Their effect on the population varies from (10-35 %). In attacking trees, insects prefer trees of mechanically damaged or pruning scar, therefore ochre point is necessary for trees pruned during the egg laying period. On the other hand pruning could be done before or after egg laying period. Reasonable result obtained in using insecticides by injection.


27) INVESTIGATION ON THE DISTRIBITION, BIOLOGY, PARASITES, CONTROL AND PROTECTION METHODS OF Stilpnotia salicis L.

Year /Number: 1972/7                             ODC: 145.7:18.77:176.1.Populus 
Authors: SEKENDIZ,O. YILDIZ, N.

Stilpnotia salicis L. is very important on poplar and willow trees in Turkey. They are seen Bursa-Yenisehir, Lüleburgaz, Kirklareli and Babaeski in Marmara-Thracia region of Turkey, Igdir, Agri, Erzincan in East of Turkey, Eskisehir in Central Anatolia, around Diyarbakir region in South-East Anatolia. S salicis L. has 2 or 3 generations in year and sometimes it can be very harmful for foliage of the poplar trees. It's known as a primery pest. Parasites are Hym. Chalcidoidea-Eulophidea, Pediopus sp. Their effect on the population varies from (% 30).Rogor (0.15 %) and Metasistox-R (0.15 %) have been giving very effective result against S. salicis's young caterpillars in summer and Thiodan (0.2-0.3 %) also. Di-nitro-ortho-cresol (DNOC) is very effective against S. salicis's caterpillars and eggs in winter.


28) INVESTIGATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION, BIOLOGY, CONTROL AND PROTECTION METHODS OF Nycteola asiatica Krull. (Sarrotripus musculana Ersch.)

Year /Number:1972/7                             ODC: 145.7.18:76.176.1.Populus 
Authors: SEKENDIZ, O., YILDIZ, N.

Nyctela asiatica Krul. is very important on poplar and willow trees in Turkey. Distribution areas of this insect are Marmara and Thracia region's plantation areas and nurseries. Generally N. asiatica has 2 generations, sometimes it has 3 generations in a year. Parasites are Apanteles sp. and Bracon sp., Habrocytus (Wolta), Hoplectis curticande Kriegma. Their effect on the population varies from (35 % - 45 %). Rogor (0.2 %) and Gusathion (0.2 %) have been giving very effective result against to N. asiatica's caterpillars.


29) INVESTIGATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION, BIOLOGY, CONTROL AND PROTECTION METHODS OF Agrilus ater L.

Year /Number:1972/7                             ODC: 145.7:19.66:176.1.Populus 
Authors: SEKENDIZ, O., YILDIZ, N.

Agrilus ater L. is seen Caycuma, Safranbolu, Mengen, in West of Black Sea Region: Ankara and Eskisehir in Central Anatolia: Izmit, Adapazari, Geyve, Edirne and Kirklareli in Marmara-Thracia region of Turkey. Agrilus ater L. has only one generation in a year in Turkey. It is known as a secondary pest therefore modern cultural technique method applications are necessary in establishing new poplar plantation free from attack. If we inject Metasistox-R (0.3 %) into the A. ater's galleries, all larvae will die, in old poplar plantation areas. Chemical control will very effective if poplar trees haven't physiological weakness.


30) SOME INVESTIGATION ON THE CHEMICAL CONTROL AGAINST INSECTS ATTACKING PILED POPLAR WOOD

Year /Number:1972/7                             ODC: 145.7:414:176.1.Populus 
Authors: N, YILDIZ.

Time by time some xylophagous insect were observed by our section on the plantation areas and on piled poplar wood of private factories. For this reason, this project was established and several kind of economic chemicals were applied to piled poplar woods. If we have to keep poplar woods in the store for one season we will use one of these chemical compound such as BHG+Gas-oil, BHC+Methyl-alcohol, Dieldrin+Gas-oil, Dieldrin+Methyl-alcohol in June and in September. After these treatments, the result are sufficient.

ABSTRACTS