ABSTRACTS ON FOREST ECONOMY, YIELD AND INVENTORY
11) A STUDY ON SPACING IN EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS
ODC : 232.43:176.1 Eucalyptus
Author(s): AVCIOGLU, E., SUN, O.
Determination of the spacing has been one of the main controversial subjects of eucalyptus plantations. To find an answer the main questions, an experiment was established covering 10 different spacings at Karabucak-Tarsus in 1969. As far as volume/ha is concerned, narrower spacings showed better result than the wider ones. For example in the plots of 2m x 2m volume/ha figures have been higher than the plots 4m x 5m, 5m x 5m, 3m x 5m, 4m x 4m. Diameter growth has been lesser in the plots of narrower spacings than the plots of wider spacings.
12) SPACING EXPERIMENT IN THE POPLAR CLONE I-214
ODC : 232.43:524.1176.1 Populus
Author(s): USTA, H.Z.
Ten-year observations of the spacing experiment in the poplar clone I-214 were evaluated. The experimental plantations, consisting of two randomized blocks each, with 19 plots of different spacings from 3m x 2m to 6m x 6m were established in Izmit, Selcuk and Isparta, in three different regions of Turkey. 36 plants of two years old of first quality (thicker than 3.5 cm in diameter at 1 m height), raised from cuttings were planted in each plot and the central 16 trees were distinguished as assessment plot for measuring. Equations derived within the study; h= 0.2212 * Y0.67933 * H0.980456 (1). Where: h= mean height, m, Y= plantation age, H= site index, (mean height at 10 the plantation age), m. Loge d= b0 + b1*H + b2*A + b3/Y + b4/Y2 + b5/A2 + b6/Y2 *A2 + b7*Y2 *H/A (2). Where: d= mean diameter at breast height, cm, H= site index (mean height at 10th plantation age), m, A= growing space (corresponding to spacing, m x m), m2, Y= Plantation age. Breast height from factor desreases by increasing spacing. Equation 3 expresses the change in from factor with spacing. fg= 0.474 - 0.00455*A + 0.0000654*A2 (3). % N= 99.43 - 0.3334*Y + 0.00966*Y2 (4). Where : % N= survival percentage, Y= plantation age. Using this equations 1, 2 and 4 and the stem volume equation (5) for the clone I-214 derived by Usta (1979), the yield tables were constructed. The volume equation is: v= 0.000057434*h0.975534431 *d1.861189742 (5). Where: v= stem volume, (from the ground to the highest point of tree), m3, h= height, (from the ground to the highest point of tree), m, d= diameter at breast height, cm.
13) VOLUME TABLE FOR RADIATA PINE GROWN IN TURKEY
ODC : 523.3:524.315:174.7 Pinus
Author(s): BIRLER, A.S.
Pinus radiata plantations established since 1970's in Kocaeli Peninsula-Turkey have covered considerable area in size. New management plans are now being prepared for the areas planted during the last decade and volume table for radiata pine is required. 83 trees of radiata pine were sampled in the region by the Forest Management Planning Group 38. Cross sectional diameters and bark thickness were measured on the sample trees. Establishment of a volume equation in order to estimate tree stem volume from diameter at breast height and tree height has been the method to arrange volume table. A volume equation and an equation of bark factor have been established as the best fit by stepwise multiple regression analyses. Then a volume table has been arranged using these equations. Volume table gives stem volumes inside and outside bark of radiata pine trees. Pinus radiata is infested by the insect named Evetria bouliana in Kocaeli Peninsula and consequently the trees did not grow taller compared to their diameter and developed a plumpish tree form. Therefore arrangement of a volume table for this region has proven very useful. But arrangement of trees will prove be more useful.
14) OPERATIONAL UNIT TIMES AND COST ANALYSES FOR POPLAR NURSERIES
Author(s): BIRLER, A.S., YUKSEL,Y., DINER, A.
1. During the last decade, plantation establishment for timber production purposes has become a satisfactorily profit making soil business and has made considerable contribution in meeting the increasing demand for wood in Turkey. 2. In order to provide the required information, the following studies were made: a) The estimation of unit times for standard poplar nursery operations, b) The estimation of unit costs for standard poplar nursery operations, c) The estimation of the production costs of poplar saplings, d) The cost-benefit analyses for poplar nurseries and the estimation of selling prices for poplar saplings. All costs were estimated in Turkish currency (TL) in accordance with the market conditions valid for the 13th March, 1987. Since the TL devaluates considerably within shorter period, estimated cost data were revaluated in hard currencies such as the US $ and the West German Mark (DM) in accordance with the exchange rate issued by the Turkish Central Bank on 13th March, 1987. Annual expenditures were compounded at a 12 % rate of real interest to determine the total expenditure by the end of the nursery rotation period. 3. The operations conducted in poplar nurseries were classified into three stages, which are namely the nursery establishment, the nursery maintenance and the marketing. 4. The costs of the nursery operations were calculated in terms of Turkish currency (TL) and also in terms of equivalent US $ and West German Mark (DM). 5. In order to calculate the costs of poplar saplings, nursery expenditures were calculated as regards the plant age and the species. 6. Cost-benefit analyses were made in order to estimate the selling prices for poplar saplings. Analyses were made to achieve a cost-benefit ratio of 25 % (Mean annual net revenue/compounded total cost= 0.25).
15) A STUDY OF THE ECONOMICS OF BLACK POPLAR PLANTATIONS WITH AGRICULTURAL INTERCROPPING
Author(s): ALANAY, A.
1- It is well known that there has been a shortage of forest wood products in Turkey. Poplar plantations can create reliable resources to reduce this shortage. In order to increase the rationality of land use and to maximize the benefit, the effect of poplar cultivations on agricultural crops should be investigated widely. Narrower spacings and shorter rotation periods have been applied in black poplar plantations, since black poplar wood in size of 7 cm to 20 cm of mean diameter has been used. 2- In order to determine the impact of black poplar cultivation on the economy of the country and to establish encouraging policies, economics and financial analyses were made on 37 various alternatives of land use regarding 7 different criteria of profitability. Four of these criteria considered profitability for producers, i.e. internal rate of return (IRR), benefit/cost ratio (B/C), net discounted revenue (NDR) and net revenue (NR). The other criteria were added value, employment and foreign exchange. 3- The highest rate of internal return (40.18 %) was estimated for green bean cultivation. The internal rate of return was estimated 24.57 % for wheat cultivation whereas, the other economic indicators were found negative. Increment in the profitability became evident for black poplar plantations at wider spacings. The greatest profitability was found for black poplar plantations in spacing of 3m x 1m and combined with agricultural crops. Black poplar cultivation resulted a maximum added value, when compared with agricultural crops only. The rate of added value increased for plantations with narrower spacings. Fodder crops should also be taken into consideration to combine with poplar plantations at older age of years.
16) THE ECONOMICS OF "I-214" POPLAR PLANTATIONS (Standard Times, Standard Costs and Financial Analysis)
Author(s): BIRLER, A.S., YUKSEL, Y., DINER, A.
1- In Turkey, annual poplar wood production is estimated about 3.5 million cubic meters and nearly 35 % of this amount is the wood from "I-214" poplars. Financial analyses were made for "I-214" poplar plantations growing on different site conditions and at various spacings. 2- The standard operations conducted in "I-214" poplar plantations were defined and their mean annual frequencies of application were determined. In this study, the usual methods of comparing cost and benefit streams commonly applied to agricultural and forestry projects, such as: net benefit/cost ratio, land expectation value, internal rate of return and wood production cost were used in financial evaluation of the investments to "I-214" poplar plantations. 3- The unit times for the standard operations were estimated. 4- Plantation costs were calculated which arise due to the operations conducted in "I-214" poplar plantations. The costs estimated in term of TL/Ha were converted into the terms of DM/Ha and US $/Ha with the exchange rates issued on the 31 st March 1988 by the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey. 5- The annual inputs (the expenditure) were calculated from the operational unit costs and the annual frequency of operations. In calculation of the annual outputs (revenues), the variable density wood assortment yield tables for "I-214" poplar plantations were basically used (Birler 1986). The volumes of different wood assortments given for various age classes in the yield tables were multiplied with the appropriate prices for wood assortments and this way "Monetary Yield Tables" were constructed. 6-Financial analyses showed that agricultural intercropping during the first three years would help to increase the profitability of investment. Agricultural intercropping is much recommended in "I-214" poplar plantations on poorer sites to improve the feasibility of investment to plantations.
17) OPERATIONAL UNIT TIMES AND COST ANALYSES FOR POPLAR NURSERIES
Author(s): BIRLER, A.S., KOCAR, S.
The standard times given in this study for the operations conducted in poplar nurseries and their annual frequencies for application are taken from the publication titled "Operational Unit Times and Cost Analyses for Poplar Nurseries" (Birler et.al. 1987). The standard costs for these operations are calculated in accordance with the current market conditions. Nursery expenditures, cost and selling prices for poplar saplings are determined and cost benefit analyses are made for both of private and state owned nurseries.
18) A STUDY OF THE VOLUME AND DRY-WEIGHT YIELDS FROM EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS
ODC: 52:53:54:56:612:176.1 Eucalyptus
Author(s): BIRLER, A. S., AVCIOGLU, E., DINER, A., GURSES, M.K., GULBABA, A.G.
In this study, growth and developmental trends of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. plantations growing on different sites and at various spacings were investigated with respect to yields of volume and dry matter content. In this connection, experimental plantations were established on the site conditions of bottomland (reclaimed swampy area) and mountainous terrains (natural sites for Pinus brutia Ten. forests) in the eastern Mediterranean region in Turkey where eucalyptus is widely cultivated. Volume tables, site index table, volume yield tables and dry weight yield tables were constructed using the experimental material and data obtained from the plantations. The yield tables present volume and dry-weight estimates for four site indices and seven spacings to cover age classes up to l6 years.
19) THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION INTRODUCED BY THE POPLAR DEVELOPMENT PROJECT IN TURKEY
ODC: 646:651.2:651.71:6126.96.36.199: Populus
Author(s): KOCAR, S.
In this study, financial analyses on the comparative basis were made for the conventional techniques of operations conducted in cultivating poplar nurseries and poplar plantations and also for the alternative techniques of operations newly introduced in frame of the Poplar Development Project (TKGP) in Turkey. The methods of calculating net present value (NBD), net benefit cost ratio (NFMD) and internal rate of return (AKD) were adopted for the financial analyses. Due to the higher costs of input required for newly introduced techniques of operation in poplar cultivation, comparative analyses resulted in favor of the conventional techniques of operations. When compared with hybrid poplars (P. xeuramericana cv. "I-214" Dode-Guinier), black poplar (Q.usbekistanica cv."Afghanica") plantations are established in much closer spacings and closer spacings result significant increases in the operational standard times and in plantation costs. Therefore, financial analyses gave higher values of NBD, NFMO and IKO for plantations with "I-2l4" poplars.
1996/3 ODC: 174.1:222.21:226:524:535:551:56:812.144
Author(s): BIRLER, A.S.- DINER, A. - KOCAR, S.
In this study, yields of wood in terms of volume, dry-matter weight and energy equivalent were estimated as a function of age of coppice stands and of industrial plantations stands with Pinus pinaster and Pinus radiata established on coppice site at Izmit - Kerpe during the years 1973 to 1974.
The estimates for coppices and for industrial plantations with coniferous tree species were compared. Comparisons showed that the wood volume yield from plantations was greater than that from coppices. But the coppices consisting of tree species of higher wood density yielded greater quantity of dry-matter weight and energy equivalent.