ABSTRACTS ON TREE
21) THE ESTABLISHMENT OF COMPARISON EUCALYPTETA PROJECT IN TURKEY
ODC : 232.11:176.1 Eucalyptus
Authors: AVCIOGLU, E., GURSES, M.K.
According to the foundation of comparison eucalypteta,
12 trial sites were established at different locations which are considered to
have suitable conditions for eucalyptus plantation in Turkey. These trial
sites were located at different geographic regions and 2 different altitudinal
zones. First zone representing low altitude is below 300 m and second zone
representing high altitude is above 300 m.
Results taken from this investigation are indicated below:
In Aegean region two origins of E. camaldulensis Dehn. (855 Lake Albacutya and 856 Willuna) are the most promising origins.
In western part of Mediterranean region E. camaldulensis (855) is a suitable origin for poor site conditions at low altitudes, but at the flat areas which have high water table and rich organic material, E. grandis (816), E. camaldulensis (Karabucak) and E. tereticornis (808) are the most satisfactory origins. At high altitudes, E. camaldulensis (855) and E. camaldulensis (856) are suitable origins.
Further investigations with origins of promising species are needed for determining the best Eucalyptus species and origins for Eucalyptus plantations in Aegean and Mediterranean regions.Marmara and central Black Sea regions are not suitable for Eucalyptus.
22) INVESTIGATIONS ON COMPARISON OF SOME ALEPPO PINE (P. halepensis Mill.) AND TURKISH RED PINE (P. brutia Ten.) ORIGINS IN MARMARA AND BLACK SEA REGIONS
ODC : 232.12
Author: TULUKCU, M., TUNCTANER, K., TOPLU, F.
Provenance trials with different number of provenances of P.halepensis,
P.brutia and P.elderica were established at Bafra-Sarigazel and Izmit-Kerpe
in 1974, at Gemlik-Armutlu in 1976).
The trial site located at Bafra-Sarigazel is very near to Bafra-Camgolu where is the northest geographic distribution area of P. brutia in Turkey. Izmit-Kerpe trial site is out of natural distribution area of P. brutia Gemlik-Armutlu trial site is in the transition zone of P. brutia and P. nigra. All trial sites are located at out of geographic range of P. halepensis and P. elderica. Evaluations concerning height and diameter measurements, survival percentages, and stem form of the trees have been carried out.
Results of the investigations are indicated below:
At the end of 10 years at Bafra-Sarigazel and Izmit-Kerpe trial sites P. halepensis provenances from Greece, GR.80 (Khalkidiki, Pligiros) and GR.81 (Euben, Papadon) are found as the most promising origins TR. 422 (Bafra-Camgolu), from Turkey is the best P. brutia origin for these trial sites
At the end of 8 years at Gemlik-Armutlu trial site P. elderica provenance from Iran, IR.91 (Tahran) have shown better performance than the other represented by trial site is better than P. brutia and P. halepensis. The most satisfactory P. brutia origin is TR.594 (Bursa) GR. 81 (Eubea, Papadon) has been found as the best P. halepensis provenance .
The provenances of these three species at trial sites are not found as having satisfactory growth performances comparing other exotic species such as P. pinaster and P. radiata tested at the same regions.
23) INVESTIGATION ON GROWTH AND RESISTANCE TO EUROPEAN SHOOT MOTH (Evetria buoliana Schiff.) OF RADIATA PINE (Pinus radiata D.Don) ORIGINS IN KOCAELI PENINSULA
Authors: TOPLU, F., TUNCTANER, K., TULUKCU, M.
This experiment was established in 1981 at Kandira-Sarisu and
aimed at selecting the most suitable provenances and populations for ecological
conditions in the region of Kocaeli peninsula regarding their growth
performances and resistance against insect damages.
14 origins from natural range and one origin from a plantation in Australia-Canberra grouped into 5 different populations were tested in the trial site .
At the end of six years, the origin numbered 12657 and the population Guadalupe showed the maximum height with 405.6 cm and 405.6 cm respectively. Diameter growth was 67.3 mm for the population Guadalupe and the origin 12591 reached to 69.00 mm d.b.h.
Origin numbered with 12593 and Monterey population were the best origin and population regarding their survival percentages with % 100 and % 98 respectively.
At the end of six years, the origin 12591 and the population Guadalupe were found the most promising origin and population with 16.5 m3/ha and 15.4 m3/ha. At the age of twenty, the origin 12657 and the population Guadalupe are expected to reach the maximum volume (585.9 m3/ha) as theoretical values.
Determination of insect damages showed that the origin 12785 and the population Cedros were the least damaged origin and population at the trial site.
As a conclusion, it is suggested that piority should be given to the populations of Guadalupe, Monterey and Ano Nuevo for industrial plantations to be established at the sites in similar ecological conditions of the trial site.
24) EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS W.Hill ex Maiden ORIGIN TRIAL
Author: AVCIOGLU, E., GURSES, M.K.
For this experiment, eleven origin imported from abroad and
one from Turkey were tested in trial site. The mean trees were calculated in
each plot from the height and diameter measurements, then one tree from each
plot which had the nearest dimension to the calculated mean tree was cut down
and then these sample trees were into section in order to measure their annual
rings and bark thickness. From these measurements, volumes of mean trees with
bark and without bark were calculated. Volumes of origins per hectare were
calculated using the values of mean trees.
Variance analyses made for the last year growth showed that there was significant difference between the origins in the level of 0.05 (F= 2.43*). According to Duncan test the first group had the following origins: Karabucak (17.84 m), 1263 (17.43 m), 10696 (17.43 m), 26223 (17.30 m), 7823 (17.19 m), 10693 (16.98 m), 12426 (16.93 m).
In variance analysis which was made for the diameter values of the last year, there were no significant differences between the origins (F= 0.94 NS). But the Karabucak origin was the first origin with 17.74 cm dbh.
In variance analyses which was made for survival rates there were no significant differences (F= 1.32 NS). The origin which had the highest survival rate was number 29223.
In variance analysis which was made for volumes there were significant differences between the origins in the level of 0.05 (F= 2.70*).
According to Duncan test the origins in first group are as follows: Karabucak (252.676 m3/ha), 10696 (188.036 m3/ha), 1263 (186.930 m3/ha).
There were no significant differences between the origins based on bark percentages.
At the end of 5th year, Karabucak origin produced 252.676 m3/ha volume with bark and annual volume increment was 50.535 m3/ha.
As a conclusion we can say that Karabucak origin of E. grandis should be used in the plantations to be established at Karabucak and the other sites which have similar ecological conditions.
On the other hand, growing of E. grandis seedlings should be started at Karabucak and Osmaniye nurseries and distributes to farmers. Emphasis should be given to research works on vegetative propagation of this species.
25) INVESTIGATIONS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCES AND MORPHO-GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF MARITIME PINE (Pinus pinaster Ait.) ORIGINS
Author: TUNCTANER, K., TULUKCU, M., TOPLU, F.
The objectives of this study are to select the best Maritime
Pine origins which are resistant to biotic and abiotic factors in various
ecological conditions and to determine and to compare morphological
characteristics of origins.
The origins MA, 240, from Morocco and GR. 236, from Greece at Fatih Ormani trial site, FC, 333 from Corsica, France and DE, 99 from Spain at Kerpe trial site, and MA, 240 from Morocco and FC, 233 from Corsica, France at Kdz. Eregli trial site gave the best volume and volume increment values.
Snow damages were evaluated by means of the scale. at Fatih Ormani and Kdz. Eregli trial sites. According to these evaluations Corsican and Moroccon origins were found as the most resistant origins against snow .
Some morphological caharacteristics of origins (Length of needle, width of needle, thickness of needle, number of needle, angle of branch, number of branch and length of branch) were determined at all trial sites . Correlations and regressions between snow damages and morphological characteristics of origins (Length of needle, width of needle, thickness of needle, number of branch, and length of branch) were investigated as regards the origins and the races. From the results of these evaluations, a multiple correlation was found between snow damages and length of needle, number of needle and width of needle Similar results were also found for the races at the trial sites. A multiple correlation was found between snow damages and length of needle, width of needle and thickness of branch at Fatih Ormani trial site.
The results of analysis of height and d.b.h. ratio in accordance with races. Land race was found to have the heighest height and d.b.h. ratio while Moroccon race has the smallest value.Therefore, Moroccon and Corsican origins should be used in the plantations which have similar site conditions to these trial sites.
26) INVESTIGATION ON GROWTH PERFORMANCES of Pinus muricata D.Don ORIGINS IN KOCAELI PENINSULA
Year/No: 1989/2 ODC:232.12
Authors : TOPLU, F., TUNCTANER, K., TULUKCU, M.
The gap between wood production and demand has been
increasing year by year in Turkey as it is in the World. Establishment of
industrial plantations with fast growing exotic forest tree species has been
considered as one of the most important measures to be taken for meeting this
This experiment was established in 1981 at Izmit-Kayalidag in Marmara region and aimed at selecting best origins for ecological condirions in the region of Kocaeli Peninsula regarding their growth performances and resistant against damage of Evetria buoliana Schiff.
Six different subpopulations (origins) from natural range of Pinus muricata D. Don were tested in the trial site .
The results of evaluations on height, d.b.h., survival, volume and stem form values of subpopulations were shown . There were no significant differences between Pinus muricata origins as regards their height, diameter, survival and stem form values. Volume and volume increment of the origins obtained by using the formula of Naslunda (1941). The origin numbered 12603 gave the highest volume and volume incremenet (18.306 m3/ha. and 1.830 m3/ha year).
All of the origins were suffered from the insect of Evetria buoliana Schiff very heavily.
Regressions between the geographic locations of the origins (latitude, longitude, altitude) and their survival, height, diameter and stem from values were investigated. But these regressions did not give any significant result .
As a conclusion, origins of Pinus muricata were not found as having satisfactory growth performances and stem form quality comparing the other exotic species such as Pinus pinaster Ait. used in the same region.
27) INVESTIGATION ON GOWTH OF Pinus ponderosa Laws. ORIGINS IN MARMARA AND BLACK SEA REGIONS
Authors : TOPLU, F., TUNCTANER, K., TULUKCU, F.
The purpose of this study to find out the most promising Pinus
ponderosa Laws. origins for the sites represented by Gemlik-Armutlu, Izmit-Kayalidag
and Duzce-Aksu trial sites in Marmara and Western Black Sea regions.
Eight origins of Pinus ponderosa were tested at the trial sites in this study.
The results of the evaluations and statistical analysis of the origins concerning their height, diameter, survival and stem form performances at the trial sites were given. Apart from this, stem analysis were made by using the mean trees of eight origins at the trial sites. The results obtained from the stem analysis showed that the origins USA-454 at Armutlu site, USA-380 and USA-454 at Kayalidag site and USA-454 at Aksu site had given the maximum volume growth with 9.4 m3/ha, 14.6 m3/ha and 39.7 m3/ha respectively. However it can be stated that growth performances of the best origins of Pinus ponderosa at trial sites are not satisfatory when they are compared with the performances of Pinus pinaster Ait. ana Pinus nigra Arnold planted at the same sites.
The number of the origins used in this study are not sufficient for making precise decision, therefore further investigations should be made by using the origins representing most of natural range of Pinus ponderosa. On the other hand, it might be expected to get better results form teh evaluations to be made in coming years particularly at Duzce-Aksu trial site, since Pinus ponderosa has a long rotation period.
28) INVESTIGATIONS ON GENETIC VARIATIONS OF VARIOUS WILLOW CLONES AND THEIR ADAPTABILITY TO DIFFERENT REGIONS IN TURKEY
Author: TUNCTANER, K.
In this study, genetic variations of various willow (Salix L.) clones were investigated. 55 clones were selected from natural tree-size willow population occuring in Black Sea, Marmara, Central Anatolia and South-east Anatolia regions. Genetic characteristics of willow clones and poplar clone "I-214", such as rooting percentage, growth performance, vegetation period, stem form, basic density, dry matter and holocellulose production, calori and protein values were determined using the data obtained from the experiment established at Izmit Nursery. Apart from this, investigations on adaptabilities of the clones to four trial sites established in different regions were also made. The values representing the genetic characteristics of the clones were given at the tables and selection of the willow clones to be used for further research studies was made.
29) INVESTIGATION ON GROWTH OF PINUS TAEDA L. AND PINUS ELLIOTTII ENGELM ORIGINS IN MARMARA AND BLACK SEA REGIONS
Year/No : 1991/2 ODC: 232.12
Author: TULUKCU, M., TUNCTANER, K., TOPLU, F.
Three P.taeda L. - P.elliotti Engelm. origin trials were established at Kayalidag, Gebze and at Kerpe, Kandira in the region of Marmara in 1976, and at Eregli, Kdz. Eregli in the region of western Black Sea in Turkiye in 1979. These trials were evaluated as regards adaptation of the origins to these trial site and growth comparisons of the origins at the end of 1989. The results of these 14th year evaluations at Kayalidag, Gebze trial site, provenances of USA. 483 from Nottoway, Virginia and USA. 486 from Kent, Maryland reached the highest volume and mean annual volume increment values. In accordance with the 11th year evaluations, at Kerpe, Kandira trial site provenances of P.taeda CA.426 from Central Africa, USA.451 from Central Mississippi and USA.450 from North Louisiana were found as the most succesful provenances. At Kdz.Eregli trial site provenances of P.taeda USA.452 from Central Alabama and USA.453 from Central Georgia were determined as the best provenances.
30) INVESTIGATIONS ON PROPAGATION OF PINUS RADIATA (D.DON) BY STEM CUTTINGS
Authors: TULUKCU, M., TUNCTANER, K., TOPLU, F., AKCIDEM, E.
This work is the first step of long term resistant improvement research. The purpose of the research is to select the resistant Pinus radiata individuals against insect of Evetria bouliana schiff. and propagate them vegetatively to establish clonal plantations using these individuals.
In this study as a first step, planting and rooting conditions of the P.radiata to the results: The best rooting mediums were found Sand+Peat (1:1) for heated beds. Sand+Perlit (1:1) for unheated beds. The best planting time was the early period of 1th January- 5th February. In 1990, the cutting materials taken from the first selected individuals were compared based on their rooting succes in the fixed medium of Sand+Peat.