ABSTRACTS ON TREE BREEDING

11) POPULETA IN MEDITERRANEAN REGION-POPULETUM OF OSMANIYE

Year/No: 1978/13                             ODC : 232.13:176.1 Populus
Author: GOKCE, O., CETIN, A.

Results of comparison populetum in Osmaniye :
This experiment was established in Osmaniye substation. Seven different hybrid poplar clones were used in the experiment and compared related to their growth and increment.
The clones used in the experiment were followed:
1) I-214 : (P.x euramericana) 2) I-488 : (P.x euramericana) 3) I-69/55 : (P.x euramericana) 4) I-45/51: (P.x euramericana) 5) Negrito de Granada (P.x euramericana) 6) 64 H : (P.x euramericana) 7) I-77/51 : (P. deltoides)
At the end of the experiment, stem analysis has been carried out on the mean height and mean circumference sample trees.
According to 12 years results, ranking of the clones based on their circumference were as below :
1) I-214 2) I-45/51 3) Negrito de granada 4) 64 H
5) I-69/55 6) I-488 7) I-77/51
The clones selected regarding their heights were as below :
1) I-69/55 2) I-214 3) I-45/51 4) Negrito de Granada 5) I-488 6) I-77/51 7) 64 H
Economic rations for the clones were estimated as below :
For I-214, I-488 : 11 Years
For I-45/51, I-69/55 : 12 Years
For I-77/51, Negrito de Granada : 13 Years
Annual mean volume increments of the clones were calculated and ranked as below :
1) I-214 2) Negrito de Granada 3) I-69/55 4) I-488 5) I-45/51 6) I-77/51
Bark volume percentages of the clones were:

I-214:  % 7.95 I-488:  % 9.76 I-69/55:  % 10.80
I-45/51 :: % 9.65 Negrito de Granada : : % 11.18
I-77/51 :: % 11.11
The conclusion derived from the experiment :
1) I-214 was the best clone for the sites, similar with the place of experiment. 2) I-77/51 was the worst clone that should be out further investigations. 3) The other clones should be included in new experiments for further investigations.


12) INVESTIGATIONS ON THE ORIGIN PROBLEMS OF Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco) IN TURKEY

Year/No: 1981/2-17                             ODC : 232.12:165.52
Author: SIMSEK, Y.

This research is carried out in two steps. In the step of the nursery, research plants are investigated as regards resistance to fost damages, weight of 1000 seeds, dimensiona of seeds, germination of seeds and development of plants. According to the results of Nursery research the differences are in the direction of East-West are caused too much changes in the stands. After selection of 81 origin in the step of Nursery research, field trials are established in 9 expeiment sites (Cenedag, Kerpe, Duzce, Eregli, Devrek, Sinop, Sapanca, Zonguldak, Giresun). Every year the measurement of height, diameter and survival is made in the experiment sites. Separately, qualitative measurements are made three expeimen sites (Cenedag, Kerpe, Duzce). Four year after establishment, origin selection is made in each experiment site. This evaluation is showed below: For Cenedag the origins No. 1088, 1075; for Kerpe the origins No. 1050 and 1119; for Sinop the origins No. 1051, 1067, 1042 and 1138; for Sapanca the origins No. 1101, 1073, 1128 and 1134; for Giresun the origins No. 1095 and 1097; for Duzce the origins No. 1075, 1080, 1125 and 1128; for Karadeniz-Eregli the origins No. 1119, 1095, 1051, 1138 and 1149; for Devrek the origins No. 1125, 1075, 1073, 1076 and 1072; for Zonguldak No. 1137, 1136, 1067 and 1049 are selected. According to qualitative evaluation, the trees of inland from of Douglas Fir are more straight than those of coastal form. Afterward, Duglas Fir plantations must be established very near of coast and more than 800 m elevation. As a result, Duglas can be grown in East and West Black Sea regions and a determined area of Marmara Region in Turkey.


13) INVESTIGATIONS ON GROWTH AND STEM QUALITY OF THE TREES IN P. RADIATA D. Don PROVENANCE EXPERIMENTS ESTABLISHED IN MARMARA AND BLACK SEA REGION

Year/No: 1982/18                             ODC : 232.12:165.52
Author: SIMSEK, Y., TULUKCU, M.

After theoretical considerations, Marmara and Black Sea regions were planned to be suitable for these species and five experiment sites were established at Kerpe-Izmit, Bektasaga-Sinop, Armutlu-Gemlik, Kayalidag-Izmit and Aksu-Duzce. The results obtained from this investigation showed that P. radiata grew in height better than P. muricata on lower sites. Survival was high on lower sites and generally P. muricata showed better survival performance than P. radiata on those sites. The insect, Evetria buoliana Schiff. caused serious damages on the trees of both species in the experiment sites above 400 m. Frost damage occurred moderately on P. radiata trees but there were no damages on P. muricata trees. According to qualitative characters there were no differences between provenances at Kerpe and Bektasaga experiment sites. Significant differences regarding branch length, branch diameter and the number of branches on the whorls of the trees in Armutlu. P. muricata showed some bad qualitative characters such as long branches, thick branches and acuteangle branches. Therefore P. radiata have better wood quality than P. muricata at this experiment site.


14) SOME INVESTIGATIONS ON THE ARTIFICIAL CROSSINGS BETWEEN POPULUS NIGRA OF TURKISH ORIGIN AND POPULUS DELTOIDES OF NORTH AMERICA ORIGIN

Year/No: 1982/18                             ODC : 165.41:176.1 Populus
Author: ZENGINGONUL, K.A., ALANAY, A., TOPLU, F.

The objective of this study is to find out some individuals as regards fast growth, diseases resistance and high adaptability for various climatic hybridization technique and directions of artificial crossings between P. deltoides (originated from North America) and Populus nigra (originated from Turkey). In this study, three different artificial crossing methods are tested :
1- Polinization on the branches with female flowers is taken to water culture.
2- Polinization on the izolated female flowers on the trees.
3- Polinization on the branches with female flowers, grafted on the plants raising in the pots in the greenhouse.
As a result, third method is found more successfull than the others. After first selection, ten individuals are included in the nursery research works


15) RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATIONS ON POPULETA ESTABLISHED IN TURKEY

Year/No: 1983                             ODC : 232.13:176.1 Populus
Authors: TUNCTANER.K, .AKKAN.A., Z.GONUL.K.A., ERTAN.E., AKYILMAZ.M., PAMIR.E., ERTAS.S.

The objective of establishment of the populeta is to select the clones by which maximum wood production can be obtained in poplar plantations in a given region. The most promising clones as regards adaptability and growth performances have been determined for each of the populeta. The populeta and selected clones for each populetum are shown below.
1- Populeta in Marmara Region : 72/58, 293, 64.H, ECO-28, UAS-235, 55/53, 39/61, I-214.
2- Populeta in Aegean Region : I-214, F.II, LW.42, V.S.G., I-476, 72/58, VSB,2, K.38.2, I-488.
3- Populeta in Middle Anatolia Region : 62/172, 56/52, 62/160, 45/51, 62/231, 62/172, 64.H, 62/191.
4- Populeta in Balack Sea Region : I-214, LW.42, S.177-3, ECO-14, S.513-29, 45/51, 77/51, 39/61, 45/51.
5- Populeta in South-east Anatolia Region : 58/2, I-214, 56/52, 45/51, 56/84, I-488, 56/75.
6- Populeta in Mediter. Region : 709, I-214, 58/1, 56/75, 45/51, 58/25, 56/2.
7- Populeta in East Anatolia Region : 62/168, 56/52, 56/75, 58/2.


16) INVESTIGATION ON COMPARISON OF E. CAMALDULENSIS DEHN. ORIGIN TRIALS

Year/No: 1984/20                                                                         ODC: 
Authors
: AVCIOGLU, E., ACAR, O.

Turkey has taken part in the project of “Ecological adaptation of Eucalyptus” of the committee for the Mediterranean forest Research of F.A.O. since 1969 with project of “The Origin Comparisons of E.camaldulensis in the Mediterranean Region”. 
Project activities have been realised in nursery and field.
A correlation has been seen between the latitude and the number of the seedlings with ligno-tuber. The number of the seedlings with ligno-tuber increase in northern latitudes.
Size of the leaves and elevation showed acorrelation. Those, which is grown in lower sites, have bigger than the leaves of the trees grown in higher places. The number of branches of the seedlings increases form south to north.
No correlation was observeed between height growth, elevation and latitude. As for as colour and branch transects are concerned no significant differencies were observed among origins. The shape of branch transects in square in all origins.
In second step of the project was field trials, which were established in Tarsus- Karabucak, Adana-Saricam, Fethiye- Cirpi. According to 10 year observations the best origins were Karabucak (native origin) in Tarsus, number 7046 at Saricam- Adana number 6845 at Çirpi-Fethiye. 


17) RESULTS OF INVESTIGATION ON EUCALYPTUS SPECIES TRIALS

Year/No: 1984/20                             ODC : 232.13:176.1 Eucalyptus
Author: AVCIOGLU, E., GURSES, K.

The purpose of this project is to select the best eucalyptus species adapting to different site conditions in Turkey and determine species which will be used in covering Mediterranean, Aegean, South Eastern, Eastern Black Sea and Marmara regions, in between the years of 1969 and 1975.
Randomised block design with 2 or 3 replications was used and 141 species/provenances were included in 25 trials. General area was divided into 7 climatical regions for assesments and satisfactory species in three regions were determined as follows :
1- Aegean Region : E. camaldulensis, E. blakelyi and E. sideroxylon.
2- Aegean-Mediterranean transition zone :
a) Low altidute : E. camaldulensis, E. globulus, E. bicostata, E.tereticornis.
b) High altidute : E. maideni, E. camaldulensis, E. sideroxylon, E. cinerea.
3- Mediterranean Region :
a) Low altidute : E. saligna, E. bicostata, E. stuartiana, E. grandis, E. tereticornis, E. botryoides, E. camaldulensis, E. occidentalis, E.gomphocephala, E. globulus, E. astringens, E. maideni.
b) High altidute : E. camaldulensis, E. cinerea, E. dwyeri, E.sideroxylon, E. oviformis, E. bosistoana, E. maideni, E. diversicolor, E.blakelyi.
4- Mediterranean-South East transition zone :E. camaldulensis, E. blakelyi.
5- South East Anatolia region : There is no satisfactory species.
6- Eastern Black Sea Region :E. viminalis, E. camaldulensis, E. stuartiana.
7- Marmara Region : E. viminalis, E. maideni, E. camaldulensis, E. ovata. E. bridgesiana.


18) INVESTIGATIONS ON THE SELECTION OF THE MOST SUITABLE ORIGINS OF EASTERN COTTONWOOD (Populus deltoides Bartr.) IN MARMARA AND AEGEAN REGIONS IN TURKEY

Year/No: 1985                             ODC : 232.12
Authors: TUNCTANER.K.,TULUKCU.M.,TOPLU.F.

Eastern Cottonwood (P. deltoides Bartr.) has a large geographic range of distribution in Northern America and it plays an important role in poplar breeding programmes and in production of poplar wood. Therefore, this poplar species is much involved in tree improvement programmes in many countries. In Turkey, some cottonwood origins were obtained from U.S. Poplar Council in 1974-1975 and selections were started with the establishment of two field trials at Torbali and Izmit by Poplar Research Institute in 1979.
Girth and height measurements were taken in both of the field trials in the years of 1979-1985. Foliation and defolation dates were determined and stem form, crown form and crown width of origins were estimated only in the trial located at Izmit in 1983-1985.
Significant differences have been found between the girth and height measurements of the origins. The provenances 74-001 (Texas) at Torbali field trial and the provenance 74-047 (Tennessee) at Izmit trial have shown the best performance of growth as regards the measurements made in 1985.
Generally, the growth rates of the provenances from Southern States have proven better compared to those from Northern States in both the field trials. Close relationships were found between the gowth rates of origins recorded beginning the establishment of trial in 1979 and after seven years in 1985 (Girth: r=0.651, height: r=0.624).
Provenances from Sothern States (Texas, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee) started flushing earlier and defoliation was terminated later. The length of period between the dates of foliation and defoliation is positively correlated with the rate of growth by the end of trial in 1985 (Girth: r=0.789, Height: r=0.747).
Provenances did not show any significant difference as regards their stem and crown form. But, Southern provenances have slightly developed larger crowns compared to other provenances.


19) INVESTIGATIONS ON THE SELECTION OF MOST PRODUCTIVE PROVENANCES OF MARITIME PINE (Pinus pinaster Aiton) FOR INDUSTRIAL PLANTATIONS IN TURKEY

Year/No: 1985/21                             ODC : 232.12
Authors: TUNCTANER, K., TULUKCU, M., TOPLU, F.

It is known that industrial reforestations with fast growing tree species have great importance in order to overwhelm the growing deficiency of wood production in Turkey as well as anywhere else. Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton) is one of the most promising species that is used in such industrial plantations. Many field trials have been established in order to select the most suitable origins to various ecological conditions as regards the condition of growth and the resistance to biotic and abiotic factors in the regions of Black Sea, Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean. 43 origins were tested at 13 trial sites established in these regions.
The objective of establishing industrial forest plantations with Maritime Pine is to increase quantity of wood production as much as possible. Therefore, in comparison of tree origins, the emphasis is given to the combine effect of rate of survival (RS), tree height (h) and tree diameter (d) which can be expressed as follows: (RS x h x d2). Resistance to snow damages were also taken into consideration on sites subject to snow damages.
Stem analyses were made for sample trees of pre-selected origins and their volumes were calculated in terms of stand volume per hectar. Using these volume data, regression analyses were made to estimate the expected voume of satnds to be achieved at the age of 20.
The folowing origins have shown the best performance of growth on the expeimental plots located in the corresponding regions of Turkey.


20) COMPARISON OF THE NATIVE EXOTIC BLACK PINE (P. nigra Arnold.) ORIGINS REGARDING THEIR GROWTH PERFORMANCES IN GEMLIK PENINSULA

Year/No: 1986                             ODC : 232.12:174.7
Authors: TUNCTANER.K.,TULUKCU.M.,TOPLU.F.

The purpose of this investigation is selected of the best Black-Pine origins which have good adaptability and growth performances under the site conditions of Gemlik peninsula.
3 origins from Italy (Trento-Livo, Calabria-Cosensa, and L'Aguita Villetta Barrea), 1 from France (Corsica), 1 from Greece (Grevena) and from Turkey (Bolu-Sarpuncuk and Tavsanli-Catak) were used in trial site.
The results obtained from the eveluations of the diameters at breast height, height and rate of survival of the sample trees and the combined analyses of these criteria and stem form evaluations determined in accordance with scale.
Stem analyses were made for sample trees of pre-selected origins (FC.28 and TR.469) and their volumes were calculated in terms of stand volume per hectar. Using these volume data, regression analyses were made to estimate the development of volume growth which were then extrapolated to estimate the expected volume of stands to be achieved at the age of 20.
Volume production of TR.469 is 21.1 m3/ha and its annual increment 1.9 m3/ha/year at 9 years. Expected values at 20 years is 74.6 m3/ha and 3.7 m3/ha/year. These values for the exotic origin FC.28 are 15.2 m3/ha and 1.4 m3/ha/year at 9 years; 57.7 m3/ha and 2.9 m3/ha/year at 20 years.
As a conclusion, the origin TR.469 Tav
ţanli-Catak should be preferred for industrial plantation sites similar to the conditions in Gemlik trial site. FC.28 Corsica is the best exotic origins for this site. Black Pine has a large geographic range. Therefore in order to select the most suitable origins for different site conditions establishing of detailed origin trials should be considered after determination of geographic variations of this species.


ABSTRACTS