ABSTRACTS ON TREE BREEDING
1) THE FOUNDATION PROJECT OF POPULETA IN TURKEY AND THE FIRST OBSERVATION OF THE ORIENTATION POPULETUM IN ESKISEHIR
ODC: 232.13:176.1 Populus
Author: SEMIZOGLU, M.A.
This populetum established in Eskisehir (height 804 m, latitute 300 46' , Longitute 300 31' ) with 3 P.nigra pyramidalis and 6 P.x euramericana clones in 1960. The objective of establishment of this populetum is to select the best clones for the given region. The first important results are :
1- In spite of the continental climate, all of the P.x euramericana hybrids grew better than P. nigra clones. 2- P.x euramericana "I-214" is superior to all clones with respect to both years and averages of 4 years. 3- In spite of the -22.20 C extreme temperature, only "I-488" clone had cracks due to frost. 4- The growth decrease observed since two years is tought to be due to the neglected irrigations.
2) STUDIES ON ARTIFICIAL HYBRIDIZATIONS CARRIED OUT IN 1967
ODC: 165.41:176.1 Populus
Author : ATAIZI, M.
I- In this chapter it is pointed out the object of
hybridization and it is introduced the natural and exotic poplar species in the
sections of poplar.
II- In this chapter it is explained the inheritance of desired tendencies of parents to individuals and the desired tendencies of parents and also the selection of these trees. III- In this chapter it is given the plan of artificial hybridization carried out in 1967 and it is introduced respectively the activities of cross-breeding within different combinations. IV- In this chapter it is given three of table, in Table 1. It is shown the date of putting into the greenhouse of branches of male flowers to produce the pollen from different species and the duration of producing of pollen.
3) STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF PERIOD OF STORAGE ON THE GERMINATIVE CAPACITY OF POPLAR SEEDS
Author : SEMIZOGLU, M.A., ATAIZI. M., SIMSEK, Y.
Although many authors indicated that the poplar seeds could
be stored in refrigerators in sealed cans, it is hard to find enough knowledge
in referances about the best storage method and the length of the period of
storage in which the seeds protect their germinative capacity using this
recommended storage method. The aim of this research works is to clarify this
problem partly unknown and which is very important from the stand-point of
improvement studies in genetics. The experimen was designed at the laboratory of
the Institute in the spring of 1968. The results of the experiment were analysed
on the first germinations and on the germination pecentages in 10 periods. The
table of analysis of variance was arranged using the values obtained according
to the table of analysis there are significant differences among the clones,
periods, protection methods and types.
1- The seeds of P. alba protected their germinative capacity for a long period of time. From this point of view there is not a significant difference between P. alba and the clone of "I-214".
2- There are significant differences among the result of germination periods starting from first to tenth The best result obtained from the first germination test.
3- The best method to protect the seeds was to store them in refrigerator.
4- The best protection method was to store the seeds in sealed bottles and then in closed cans.
4) STUDIES ON ARTIFICIAL HYBRIDIZATION IN 1968
ODC: 165.41:176.1 Populus
Author : SEMIZOGLU, M.A., ATAIZI, M., SIMSEK, Y.
For the articial crossing experiments made in the greenhouse of the Institute materials are being supplied from different parts of Turkey. The branches with flowers taken from male and female individuals were the materials of this research work. In order to create new types in every year the crossing experimentsare being made between the individuals of naturally grown trees as well as between the exotics. By means of artificial crossings between the naturally grown and exotic individuals and their combinations it would be possible to obtain new types which are suitable for the purpose and the quality desired. The crossings made in the years of 1968 were analysed within the plan showed. The material, branches of male and female flowers used in the Institute are also showed. The amount of pollens produced from the branches male flowers were less than that of the year of 1967. From some species it was possible to get any pollen. For exampe from the male flowers of P. tremula, P. canescens and P. balsamifera. Only small amount of pollen has been obtained from P. alba and P. euphratica the only species which gave enough pollen has been Populus nigra. The crossing operations were carried out in summer and in winter. The rate success of crossing made in summer was much lower tahn those in winter. In winter, even the branches brought from distant areas could give good results which were crossed in one to seven days.
5) PRELIMINARY OBSERVATION RESULT ON THE ORIENTATION POPULETUM OF MENGEN
ODC : 165.41:176.1 Populus
Author: SEMIZOGLU, M.A., ATAIZI, M., BIRAN, S., UYSAL, O.
This orientation populetum is found at the aim to fix the
clones for the comperative populetum which will be founded in the zones numbered
33, 37, 38 and to find out the best poplar clone for this region. There are 31
clones in this populetum. Statistical evaluations are based on eight clones
which showed best growth. Analysis have been done according to increment of
circumferences which are measured in years 1964-1969. Results of the analysis
are as follows :
1- The clone called P.x euramericana I-214 showed best result than the others with respect to increment by circumference. This clone is succeeded by those clones of P.x euramericana I-214 which are numbered 64 H, 70.D, 45/51.
2- The clones of 64.H, 70.D and 45/51 significant differences between them in respect of circumference growth.
6) ARTIFICIAL HYBRIDIZATION AND THE WORKS CARRIED OUT DURING 1969
ODC : 165.41:176.1 Populus
Author : SEMIZOGLU, M.A., ATAIZI, M., BIRAN, S.,UYSAL, 0.
The artificial hybridisations in 1969 have been realized in the greenhouse of the Institute and also in the isolated bags arranged in the stands of Populus eupratica. Crossings have been done by 67 of combinatons so that 44 of them in the greenhouse and the remaining 23 in the isolated bags on female ones of "Populus euphratica" grown in Birecik. The hybridizations on 1969 have been done between Black poplars, Black poplars with Balsam poplars, Black poplars with Populus euphratica and also between the other poplar species. We endeavour to get the clones of "Populus euphratica" which are contented particularly to the conditions of continental climate and are testing, in the meantime, the clones of "P.x euramericana" and "P. deltoides" selected by different countries under the climatic conditions of our country. By this way, the cultivators in the regions of middle, eastern and southeast Anatolia will have the possibility to get better clones of "P.x euramericana" instead of the clones of "Populus nigra" which are already being cultivated by them.
7) STUDIES ON ARTIFICIAL HYBRIDIZATION CARRIED OUT IN 1970-1971
ODC : 165.41:176.1 Populus
Author : ATAIZI, M., SIMSEK, Y., BIRAN, S., UYSAL, 0.
The hybridizations carried out during 1970-1971 was done mostly between Black Poplars. The selections of the individuals created by those crossings are being raised in experimental nurseries for 3-4 years period and their growth is measured by regular observations. The promising individuals growing in experimental nurseries will be planted in first selection populeta for a 6-7 years period. They will be compared with the poplar clone of the region which is recognized as the best one up to now. The clones for comparison are Populus. nigra 56/52 in continental regions and I-214 in temperate regions.
8) THE INTRODUCTION OF FAST GROWING FOREST TREE TO TURKEY AND PRELIMINARY RESULT OF ARBORETA ESATBLISHED IN 1969 IN THE AEGEAN REGION
ODC : 232.11
Author: SIMSEK, Y., KULABAS, D., AKKAN, A., SOYSAC, G.
This report includes the result from nine arboreta four
years after establishment in the Aegean region. Four replications of ten species
were planted in a randomized block design on nine trial sites as follows :
1- Aliaga, 2- Camalan, 3- Karatepe, 4- Keler, 5- Kirkgecit,6- Kucukderebasi, 7- Ninemsuyu, 8- Selcuk-Davutdagi, 9- Uncubozkoy.
In the combined analysis only the ten species common to all nine trials were evaluated. In addition, each arboretum was analyzed individually.
A- Individual evaluations were made for each arboretum after four years results were tabulated. Based on height growth and survival percentage, the species/provenances recommended for planting on site similar to the arboretum sites are shown below. For all arboreta the possibility that the species/provenances will grow satisfactorily is shown in below.
1- P. radiata, with tube, No. 7504, Canberra, Australia.2- P. pinea, with tube, Kozak, Turkey. 3- P. radiata, with tube, No. 9169, South Australia.4- P. pinea, with tube, Kozak, Turkey.5- P. radiata, with tube, No. 7321, c- P. radiata, with tube, No. 7504, Canberra, Australia.
P. pinea is recommended for planting on all sites. According to the results of the combined analysis :
The combined analysis of data based on criteria of height and survival percentages from all arboreta show that the best trial sites are Camalan, Ninemsuyu, and Kirkgecit. Based on these data P. pinea and P. radiata are the best species for teh Aegean. P. pinea and P. brutia has the greatest adaptability in the trials. A combined variance analysis showed that Camalan arboretum was the best arboretum site. P. brutia is next best. At the end of 1973 based on height growth Camalan arboretum has the greatest genetic gain because of site homogenity.
9) INVESTIGATIONS ON THE ORIGIN PROBLEMS OF Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco IN TURKEY
ODC : 232.12:165.52 Pseudotsuga
Author : SIMSEK, Y.
This research is carried out in two steps. In the step of the nursery research plants are investigated as regards resistance to frost damages, weight of 1000 seeds, dimensions of seeds, germination of seeds and development of plants. After selection of 81 origin in the step of Nursery research, field trials are established in 9 experiment sites (Cenedag, Kerpe, Duzce, Eregli, Devrek, Sinop, Sapanca, Zonguldak, Giresun). Every year the measurement of height, diameter and survival is made in the experiment sites. Separately, qualitative measurements are made three experiment sites (Cenedag, Kerpe, Duzce). Four year after establishment, origin selection is made each experiment site. This evaluation is shown below. For Cenedag the origins No. 1088, 1075; for Kerpe origins No.1050, 1119; for Sinop the origins No. 1051, 1067, 1042, and 1138; for Sapanca the origins No. 1101, 1073, 1128, 1134; for Giresun the origins No. 1095, and 1097; for Duzce the origins No. 1119, 1095, 1051, 1138, 1149; for Devrek the origins No. 1125, 1075, 1073, 1076 and 1072; for Zonguldak No. 1137, 1136, 1067, and 1049 are selected. According to qualitative evaluation, the trees of land form of Duglas Fir are more straight than those of coastal form. Afterward, Duglas Fir plantations must not be established very near of coast and more than 800 m elevation. As a result, Duglas can be grown in East end West Black Sea Regions and a determined area of Marmara Region in Turkey.
10) INVESTIGATION ON SELECTION OF THE ORIGINS P. CONTORTA (Dougl.) THAT CAN BE ADAPTED TO THE CONDITIONS OF TURKEY
ODC : 232.12 Pinus
Author: SIMSEK, Y., TUNCTANER, K., PETEK, Y., TULUKCU, M.
This study was carried out in two steps. In the Nursery
priority was given to relationships between origins with per 1000 seeds and
sources of geographic data.
Significative differences were found among the origins on the basis of 1000 seed weight. Cotyledon numbers of the origins were 3-7. At the end of second year, height growth of the origins showed significant differences. 2134 California, 2122 Montana and 2097 Oregon were the best ones.
Field trials were established with 36 (2 indigenous control origins) origins at four sites (Izmit, Gemlik, Sinop, Giresun). According to the height growth, best origins for Izmit 2099, 2105, 2089, 2132, for Gemlik 2134, 2105 were selected. As a result, P. contorta can grow satisfactorily northern slopes of Mountains of Black Sea Region in Turkey.